Power Point Presentation
Assess the Draft Training Proposal and peer feedback you received in Week Two, and finalize the topic and objectives for your training program. In a 20-slide PowerPoint presentation, not including the title and references slides:
Your presentation must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Support your work with cited sources from the textbook and at least three additional scholarly sources.
Training and Development Plan
Topic: Conflict Resolution for Supervisors Recent Graduates in Management Positions in Government Positions.
After the training, managers/supervisors will…….
Yousef-Morgan, C. M., & Stark, E. (2014). Strategic Human Resource Management: Concepts,
Controversies, and Evidence-based Applications. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
|Assess the Draft Training Proposal and peer feedback y|
Write a 1000-1200 word Rhetorical Analysis in which you analyze and evaluate the rhetorical strategies employed in a either Chapter 3, 5 or 6 of Are Prisons Obsolete? by Angela Davis.
Imagine that the audience for which you are writing includes people who have not read the text you are analyzing. Provide enough information about its thesis and content to allow those readers to understand what you have to say.
Your argument should be about the strategic use of rhetorical appeals and the persuasive power of the writing. What was the author’s purpose in writing this chapter, and what strategies did he or she use to achieve that purpose? Focus on HOW the writing works, not simply WHAT it conveys; discuss how the use of rhetorical appeals determines the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of the argument, not if you agree with it.
In addition to being well written and organized, successful responses to this assignment will be evaluated using the following criteria (in no particular order):
• Describe the rhetorical situation (purpose and original target audience) surrounding the text under analysis and accurately present the author’s argument.
• Include a clear and precise thesis statement that makes a contestable claim about the article’s rhetorical features.
• Demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of how elements of the rhetorical triangle are working in the text.
• Support claims and interpretations through careful analysis of the text and examples, including direct quotations when appropriate.
• Use correct grammar, word choice, sentence structure, spelling, and punctuation
• Use MLA formatting and citation style; include a “Works Cited” page.
|Write a 1000-1200 word Rhetorical Analysis|
Discussion Rules of Engagement:
Before You Begin…
To successfully complete your assignment, you should have completed the following tasks:
In this module's discussion assignment:
|Assignment 1: Study Skills and Learning Styles Discussion|
Now that you have read, watched and learned about these different models of argument - classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin - share with your classmates how you might use these techniques in your life. Not only in writing academic essays, but how might you better equipped to analyze argument you hear out in the world? In the street, on tv, online, in the newspapers, etc.
|Now that you have read, watched and learned about these different models of argument|
Instructions: Explain the ethical questions you see raised in the Nun's Priest's Tale. Write two sentences that you see contributing to the question through either setting, characters, ending, values, plot, style, imagery, tone.
Another 1 page
Instructions: For this post, you will go to the text but also to a real life situation. First, post an example of some jargon from the General Prologue. Then post an example of some jargon from your current personal work and/or the work/career you are training/studying for.
Page Line Spacing: Double spaced (Default)
Paper Format: APA
|Explain the ethical questions you see raised in the Nun's Priest's Tale.|
I want you to interview 3 people, preferably of various ages and ethnic groups. Pose the same 5 questions to them regarding the pre-mentioned topics. Some possible questions may be: Do you believe racial equality exists in our country? Have you recently been discriminated against? How would you feel about your son/daughter dating our marrying someone from another racial group? Do you think that the election of Barack Obama helped racial relations? Do you think that affirmative action is racial discrimination? Do you believe that women are treated equal to men in our society? Do you think that gay men or women should be allowed to marry and be given full civil rights under the marriage law ? These are some possible questions; I'd like you to include others that you pose.
Write a paper (4-5 pages, double-spaced) summarizing the answers. Give details about the people interviewed, i.e., single, white male, 24 years old; married, black female, 40 years old, etc. Do not use their real first names. After you've summarized the responses give your own comments and observations. Did you think any of the comments could be perceived as judgmental, prejudice or racist, why? Were the people reluctant to answer the question? etc. Okay ?
People may be reluctant to give specific answers to your questions. Try to persuade them to give answers beyond a “Yes” or “No.” Tell them that their real names will not be used. They could be assured of that.
I hope that you will have an interesting and fun time with this assignment.
|We are discussing the issues of justice, discrimination, civil rights, feminism, etc.|
Assignment: This assignment has two parts.
· Reflection Paper: answer all 3 of the prompt below. Engage critically with the prompt, clearly articulating your experiences and plans. Back them up with concrete examples.
· Visual representation of the ideas of expressed in your paper: you can do this a number of different ways.
· Reflection paper: Two to three page paper, no fewer than 600 words.
· Visual representation: You have a lot of freedom here. You can make a poster, powerpoint, annotated photo journal, prezi, info graphic or simply design a one-pager digitally or by hand.
Tools to use:
· Reflection paper: Draw on in-class activities, direct service experience, pre-Drexel experiences and your personal values to inform your paper. You are welcome to use academic sources. You must use concrete examples for demonstrate your argument.
· Visual representation: You could use tools powerpoint or prezi for presentations, Picktochart or infogr.am for info graphics or any other tools. If you use someone else’s images, you must cite your sources. This will help you share your ideas with your classmates in the final session.
Submission: upload document through BBLearn, under the “Assignments” tab. If you did a physical project for the visual, please upload a photo. Otherwise, upload a file with the visual either with the reflection or as a separate document.
Grading: Grades will be based on creativity, effort, use of concrete examples from life, class, & service, and the complexity of the ideas included.
REFLECTION PAPER PROMPT: Develop Your Civic Pathway- address all three prompts
1. Foundation and past experience
· Identify the individuals and past experience that have most informed your values.
· How have these people and experiences influenced how you participate in your community?
2. Time at Drexel
· Through this course, you were exposed to many different examples of what civic engagement can look like. Keeping these examples in mind, what will civic engagement look like for you during your time here at Drexel?
· During your time at Drexel, how will you contribute to university’s goal “to become to the most civically engaged university in the United States”?
3. Professional and personal goals, mapping out your future
· What social issue/s do you want to be involved in after your time at Drexel? What sort of impact do you hope to have? Will your impact be local, regional, national or international?
· What is the public purpose of your future profession? How might someone in your future profession be engaged in public problem-solving to improve the community s/he is a part of?
VISUAL REPRESENTATION Directions:
· Be creative in representing in your ideas visually. This visual representation shouldn’t require additional explanation, but should stand alone as a representation of your ideas.
· Clearly map out the three phases discussed in your reflection paper.
|Civic 101 Final Reflection Assignment: Due Date: 3/23/18|
|15422||RESEARCH & WRITING ASSIGNMENT DUE 03/16/2018|
For this assignment, you are asked to prepare a reflection paper on the topic of the unit lesson. Discuss the need for hospital and physician professional liability coverage (malpractice insurance) in American health care today. Make sure to cover the following points:
1. Why is malpractice coverage so extremely expensive today?
2. Do you feel that the need for liability insurance adds to or detracts from the patient care that is provided?
Your response should be at least one page in length. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations per APA standards.
Berger, S. (2014). Fundamentals of health care financial management: A practical guide to fiscal issues and activities (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Communication skills Unit 8
Select a product that you like or use. Using this product as a basis, design and write out the steps you would use to create a sales presentation on this product that includes the following components.
1. Write a minimum of two pages based upon steps presented on pages 188–209 in your textbook with specifics related to the product you have selected. Include the elements below in your description.
a. Describe the four common delivery methods of communicating ideas.
b. Recommend tips for speakers addressing the media.
c. Recommend visual and auditory aids.
d. Describe the strategies used to enhance the effectiveness of the message.
2. Write a one-page (minimum) business letter (sample on page 219 in your textbook) to your supervisor explaining your campaign.
3. Write a half-page memo (sample page 221 in your textbook) to your coworkers outlining the campaign.
4. Add a one-page summary of what you learned from this writing activity and how it will help you in your future career activities. Include in this section the challenges you faced.
Include all of the aforementioned writing pieces in one document, and write a concluding paragraph summing up what you have learned from this writing process. Include any challenges you faced. You may only use your textbook as a resource for this final project. This paper should be a minimum of four pages (not counting the title and reference pages). Use APA style. Information about accessing the grading rubric for this assignment is provided below.
Beebe, S. A., & Mottet, T. P. (2016). Business and professional communication: Principles and skills for leadership (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
|Unit VIII Reflection Paper|
View the Powerpoint about Rogerian argument
Due on 3/15 11:00 PM pst
Understand how to make and refute arguments. Learn how to analyze a Web site from a rhetorical perspective. Identify a place to publish your work online.
Appeals to persona, appeals to emotions, and appeals to logic--these three appeals, as outlined by Aristotle and described below, are used with varying degrees of success and emphasis to persuade people. Persuasive arguments targeting critical readers tend to be thoroughly grounded in logic.
Examine a subject from a rhetorical perspective. Identify the intended audience, purpose, context, media, voice, tone, and persona.Writers bring focus to their arguments by summarizing their argument in a sentence or two. As determined by the context for their argument, writers provide these thesis statements in their introductions or their conclusions.
It's true that some arguments are won on appeals to emotion. But ultimately, an argument needs to be based on reason. You need to conduct research to find the facts, opinions, and research that support your claim.Reading sample arguments can help you find and adopt an appropriate voice and persona. By reading samples, you can learn how others have supported claims with evidence.Below are some additional suggestions for developing your argument.
Introduce the Topic
Before attempting to convince readers to agree with your position on a subject, you may need to educate them about the topic. In the introduction, explain the scope, complexity, and significance of the issue. You might want to mention the various approaches that people have taken to solve the problem.
Note: It is not always easy to determine which ideas your readers will take for granted and which ones they are likely to question. Even professional writers may have difficulty deciding which aspects of the topic they need to highlight and which they can assume the reader already knows. Reading other peoples' arguments on the same topic can give you a sense of what background information you need to define. You may need to write several drafts before you can decide what information you can omit and what information is critical to provide. In addition, you should fight the tendency to cling to evidence you discovered early in your investigation that has been contradicted or made obsolete by more comprehensive, updated research.
A discussion of background information and definition of terms can constitute a substantial part of your argument when you are writing for uninformed audiences, or it can constitute a minor part of your argument when you are writing for more informed audiences.
Before asserting a claim, nearly all of the sample arguments provided in Readings present the context for argument. Note, for example, how Sandra Serrano used the first two paragraphs of her essay to place the use of "he/she" in the context of the Women's Movement of the 1960s. Her introduction thus established her topic as both worthy of consideration and a point of conflict.
Or note how Paul Klite summarizes factors that may have contributed to the Columbine High School tragedy before introducing his explanation--that media violence is an important contributor to "the culture of violence":
In the aftermath of the Columbine High School tragedy in Colorado, a broad national debate has developed to intervene in the American "culture of violence." Many fingerprints are on the proverbial trigger -- inadequate parenting; the availability of guns; alienation of youth; mental illness; school security; manipulative violence in film, video games, television, the Internet and pop music.
Let us also include the contribution of television news to this toxic stew. More than society's messenger, more than a mirror of reality, the electronic communication media collect and concentrate the planet's woes and deliver them into our living rooms each night.
Arguments are driven by claims. The claims can be about:
As discussed below, claims are typically presented near the beginning of arguments, but they can also be implied or presented in the conclusions of the texts.
Appeal to Persona
As described by Aristotle, the credibility of the person making the argument has an effect on the success of an argument. If the person has a reputation as a credible source, his or her argument appears more persuasive. Ideally, the person making the argument has the best interests of his or her readers in mind.
Today's reader's are extremely skeptical--perhaps even jaded. The constant bombardment by advertisers has enhanced our ability to ignore claims. In many ways, we have lost faith in our leaders and businesses, grouping them, perhaps, in the same category as "used car salespeople." On the national level, President Clinton's debating the definition of the word "is" or "sex" eroded our faith in politicians. Anderson Consulting's illegal cooking of the books at Enron, WorldCom's lying about a four-billion-dollar accounting error, Xerox's lying regarding a 6.4-billion-dollar accounting error --these are recent examples of credible sources who have acted in immoral or illegal ways.
Nonetheless, the persona you project as a writer plays a fundamental role in the overall success of your argument. Your opening sentences generally establish the tone of your text and present to the reader a sense of your persona, both of which play a tremendous role in the overall persuasiveness of your argument. By evaluating how you define the problem, consider counterarguments, or marshal support for your claims, your readers will make inferences about your character. When your readers are aware of your good reputation, they are more likely to give you the benefit of the doubt.
Most academic readers are put off by zealous, emotional, or angry arguments. No matter how well you fine-tune the substance of your document, the tone that readers detect significantly influences how the message is perceived. If readers dislike the manner of your presentation, they may reject your facts, too. If you do not sound confident, your readers may doubt you. If your paper is loaded with spelling errors, you look foolish. No matter how solid your evidence is for a particular claim, your readers may not agree with you if you sound sarcastic, condescending, or intolerant.
Occasionally writers will hide behind a persona. Their reasons for hiding may be totally ethical. For example, in Joseph Scaglione's Into the Wilderness--Victimization and the Criminal Justice System, he does not tell readers that he lost a daughter to a drunk driver, fearing readers would dismiss his argument as idiosyncratic.
Appeal to Emotions
While appeals to emotions are generally frowned upon in traditional academic arguments, speakers and writers still use them because of their persuasive power. Advertising seeks to invoke your emotions and capture your attention because advertisers know people make some decisions based on emotion rather than reason.
We all tend to perceive certain situations subjectively and passionately—particularly situations that involve us at a personal level. Even when we try to be objective, many of us still make decisions based on emotional impulses rather than sound reasoning. Those who recognize the power of emotional appeals sometimes twist them to sway others. Hitler is an obvious and extreme example. His dichotomizing—"You're either for me or against me"—and bandwagon appeals—"Everyone knows the Jews are inferior to true Germans"—helped instigate one of the darkest chapters in human history.
Additional emotional appeals include:
Like arguments based solely on the persona of the author, arguments based solely on appeals to emotions usually lack the strength to be completely persuasive. Most modern, well-educated readers are quick to see through such manipulative attempts. For example, after Americans and others in the international community established a blockade of Iran during the 1991 Gulf War, Saddam Hussein tried to ignite religious fanaticism and class hatred. He called on the Arab countries to establish a Holy War to drive out the Americans. And he even called on Iranians, with whom his country had fought a bitter war for nearly ten years, to "deter all those fishing in dirty waters and cooperate to turn the [Persian] Gulf into a lake of peace free of foreign fleets." Describing the Americans as impure infidels tainting the Holy Lands and calling for Arabs to rally around a higher cause—the preservation of Mecca and the Arab way of life—was a purely emotional tactic. Fortunately, most of the Arab world turned their back to Hussein's emotional appeals because they remembered Hussein's cruelty to his Arab brothers and sisters, and they remembered that Hussein had led an anti-Moslem campaign when fighting Iran.
Emotional appeals can be used to persuade readers of the rightness of good causes or imperative action. For example, if you were writing an essay advocating a school-wide recycling program, you might paint an emotional, bleak picture of what our world will look like in 50 years if we don't begin conserving now. Ultimately, however, emotional appeals by themselves lack persuasive force.
To achieve the non-threatening tone needed to diffuse emotional situations, avoid exaggerating your claims or using biased, emotional language. Also, avoid attacking your audience's claims as exaggerated. Whenever you feel angry or defensive, take a deep breath and look for points in which you can agree with or understand your opponents. When you are really emotional about an issue, try to cool off enough to recognize where your language is loaded with explosive terms.
If the people for whom you are writing feel stress when you confront them with an emotionally charged issue and have already made up their minds firmly on the subject, you should try to interest such reluctant readers by suggesting that you have an innovative way of viewing the problem. Of course, this tactic is effective only when you can indeed follow through and be as original as possible in your treatment of the subject. Otherwise, your readers may reject your ideas because they recognize that you have misrepresented yourself.
Appeal to Logic
Critical readers expect you to develop your claims thoroughly. By examining the point you want to argue and the needs of your audience, you can determine whether it will be acceptable to rely only on anecdotal information and reasoning or whether you will also need to research facts and figures and include quotations from established sources. Personal observations have their place, say, in an argument about staying in athletic shape. But an anecdotal tone is unlikely to be persuasive when you address touchy social issues such as terrorism, gun control, pornography, or drugs.
Despite the forcefulness of your emotional appeals, you need to be rational if you hope to sway educated readers. Trained as critical readers, your teachers and college-educated peers expect you to provide evidence—that is, logical reasoning, personal observations, expert testimony, facts, and statistics. Like a judge who must decide a case based on the law rather than on intuition, your teachers want to see that you can analyze an issue as "objectively" as possible. As members of the academic community, they are usually more concerned with how you argue than what you argue for or against. Regardless of your position on an issue, they want to see that you can defend your position logically and with evidence.
At some point in your essay, you may need to present counterarguments to your claim(s). Essentially, whenever you think your readers are likely to disagree with you, you need to account for their concerns. Elaborating on counterarguments is particularly useful when you have an unusual claim or a skeptical audience. The strategy usually involves stating an opinion or argument that is contrary to your position, then proving to the best of your ability why your point of view still prevails.
When presenting and refuting counterarguments, remember that your readers do not expect your position to be valid 100 percent of the time. Few people think so simplistically. Despite the forced choices that clever rhetoricians present, few subjects that are worth arguing about can be reduced to yes, always, or no, never. When it is pertinent, therefore, you should concede any instances in which your opponents' counterarguments have merit.
When considering likely counterarguments, you may want to elaborate on which of your opponent's claims about the problem are correct. For example, if your roommate's messiness is driving you crazy but you still want to live with him or her, stress that cleanliness is not the be-all-and-end-all of human life. Commend your roommate for helping you focus on your studies and express appreciation for all of the times that he or she has pitched in to clean up. And, of course, you would also want to admit to a few annoying habits of your own, such as taking thirty-minute showers or forgetting to pay the phone bill. Rather than issuing an ultimatum such as "Unless you start picking up after yourself and doing your fair share of the housework, I'm moving out," you could say, "I realize that you view housekeeping as a less important activity than I do, but I need to let you know that I find your messiness to be highly stressful, and I'm wondering what kind of compromise we can make so we can continue living together." Yes, this statement carries an implied threat, but note how this sentence is framed positively and minimalizes the emotional intensity inherent in the situation.
You will sabotage your hard-won persona as an informed and fair-minded thinker if you misrepresent your opponent's counterarguments. For example, one rhetorical tactic that critical readers typically dislike is the straw man approach, in which a weak aspect of the opponent's argument is equated with weakness of the argument as a whole. Unfortunately, American politicians tend to garner voter support by misrepresenting their opponent's background and position on the issues. Before taking a straw man approach in an academic essay, you should remember that misrepresenting or satirizing opposing thoughts and feelings about your subject will probably alienate thoughtful readers.
Search for a Compromise and Call for a Higher Interest
Occasionally--particularly in emotionally stressful situations--authors extensively develop counterarguments. Some problems are so complex that there simply isn't one solution to the problem. Under such circumstances, authors may seek a compromise under a call for a "higher interest." For example, if you were writing an editorial in an Israeli newspaper that called for setting aside some of the Gaza territory for an independent Palestinian state, your introduction might sympathetically explore all of the Israeli blood that has been lost since the Gaza was seized in the Seven Day War. Then you could address the "eye-for-an-eye" mentality that has characterized this problem. Perhaps you could soften your readers' thoughts about this problem by mentioning the number of Arabs who have died. Once you have developed your claim that some land should be set aside for the Palestinians, you might try to explore some of the "common ground" and call for Israelis and Arabs to seek out a higher goal expressed by both Jewish and Muslim peoples—that is, the desire for peace.
Speculate About Implications in Conclusions
Instead of merely repeating your original claim in the conclusion, you should end by trying to motivate your audience. Do not go out with a whimper and a boring restatement of your introduction. Instead, elaborate on the significant and broad implications of your argument. The wrap-up is an excellent place to utilize some emotional appeals.
In a single glimpse, visuals can encompass an entire argument, even a book-length, complex argument. Use visual language to impact readers at an emotional level--but be careful. Visuals are powerful, reaching us--at times--in ways words cannot. Thus, it's possible for images to be so overwhelming that your readers turn away, perhaps ignoring your evidence and reasoning. Perhaps, for example, PETA should not provide images of tortured mice in "The Necessity of Equality: Protection for Birds, Mice, and Rats Under the Federal Animal Welfare Act." Perhaps these gruesome images should be shifted to PETA's Photo Gallery or Watch the Video, giving readers choice. Alternatively, if PETA assumes that its audience already agrees with their position, then perhaps the gruesome images are called for. Perhaps their primary audience is animal activists and their goal is to motivate the activists to fight harder or make more financial contributions.
According to classical rhetoric, after educating readers about the complexity of the subject that you are addressing, you should establish your thesis—that is, your primary claim about the topic. Thereafter you marshal evidence to support your claim, using examples. Many writers follow the advice of classical rhetoricians: They define their purpose and claim in their introductions and then marshal suitable evidence. Consider, for example, how the ACLU blasts Attorney General John Ashcroft in its first sentence:
Attorney General John Ashcroft has gutted restrictions on the FBI's spying on domestic religious and political organizations. The new guidelines loosen some of the most fundamental controls on the conduct of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and represent yet another civil rights casualty of the Bush Administration's war on terrorism.
Note, for example, that Senator McCain presents his argument in his first sentence:
Because modern readers are much better educated and more informed about issues, however, the classical rhetorical approach of presenting your argument up front is not always your wisest choice. In other words, you do not always need to organize your arguments deductively—that is, by stating a general claim in the introduction and then marshaling examples to support it.
If your audience is not likely to agree with you, you may want to wait as long as possible—perhaps even until the conclusion—before revealing your opinion. This alternative approach could be called an inductive organization because it moves from specific examples to a general conclusion. You should consider an inductive structure to your argument when your audience is likely to be threatened by your subject or your position on it.
As examples of an inductive organization, consider Leslie Milne's To Be or Not to Be Single. In her introductory passages, Milne celebrates the advantages of being single. It truly isn't until her conclusion that she argues marriage is preferable to being single for "the majority of people."
Changing people's minds can be a Herculean task. Unless worded carefully, arguments can quickly go astray, resulting in emotional, off-topic behavior. Thus, it is particularly important that you use unambiguous, concrete language. appeal to the reader's senses. relate the subject or concept to information that the reader already understands, moving from given to new information.
To help readers appreciate the urgency or significance of a topic, writers use metaphor. For example, throughout Into the Wilderness--Victimization and the Criminal Justice System, Joseph Scaglione characterizes the criminal justice system as a "wilderness" that victimizes Americans while protecting criminals. In TV News and the Culture of Violence Paul Klite describes media violence as one ingredient of the "toxic stew" that is destroying America. Senator John McCain suggests the Internet is a wolf in sheep's clothing--a Trojan wolf that spreads pornography into our schools (see Senator John McCain's Statement regarding Children's Internet Protection Act).
Finally, consider this strong language from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which equates the organization's battle with opposing animal right activists as a war:
To encourage readers to think about issues, writers often ask questions. Consider, for example, how the author of this piece against vivisection stimulates your curiosity by asking a question:
In Eric Francis' text on global warming, he grabs your attention with this hook, the first sentence to his piece:
What does it mean that every time the leaders of industrialized nations gather to discuss business, they must be sequestered inside fortresses of concrete and barbed wire, guarded by thousands of riot police?
Solving Problems by Negotiating Differences
How many times have you been in an argument that you knew you couldn't win? Are you reluctant to change your mind about certain social, political, or personal issues? Do you have an unshakable faith in a particular religion or philosophy? For example, are you absolutely certain that abortion is immoral under all circumstances? Are you categorically against animal experimentation for advancements in medicine? Do you believe that criminals who have tortured and killed people should receive the death penalty? Do you believe that parents should have no more than two children because of the world population problem? Do you believe it is your patriotic duty to buy solely American products?
Some of our beliefs and arguments are based on faith, some on emotion, and some on logic alone. We all hold different religious, p olitical, and personal beliefs that largely define who we are and how we think. Within the past fifty years, as the size of our global village has appeared to shrink with the use of television, fax, and jets, we have become increasingly more sophisticated and knowledgable. As a result, most educated people now realize that few significant issues have simple solutions. Thanks to modern scholarship and research, we have come to realize that our personalities and thoughts are shaped to some degree by cultural expectations. Philosophers have challenged us to recognize that our worlviews - our assumptions about reality, what is good, what is possible - are influenced by our day-to-day experiences. We have realized that truth is nt a fixed, static entity that can be carried into a battle like a banner.
One wonderful aspect of your college career is meeting different worldviews through books and through discussions with people whom you otherwise would not encounter. Indeed, many college campuses offer a wonderful glimpse of the diversity of modern-day life. A wide-eyed glance at students at the university center on my campus, for instance, will show you Chinese students working alongside students from Africa and South America. Young women dressed in their power suits mix freely with returning older adult students. Fraternity brothers rush from place to place, dressed in their blue blazers and short haircuts, while male musicians, dressed in the tie-dyed fashions of the 1960s and shoulder-length hair, play guitars and sing protest songs.
One result of our increasingly sophisticated world is that you cannot assume that your readers will believe or even understand everythinhg you say. On the contrary, you need to assume that your readers will doubt you. They will question the validity of your evidence and test the logic of your conclusions. Modern readers tend to be particularly contentious when you insist on assertions that they find objectionable. Because of this shift in audience attitude, writers need to develop compelling ways of organizing and presenting arguments.
When you wish to address an emotional and controversial issue and when your audience is likely to be threatened by your ideas, you will probably not be successful if you make your claim in the introduction of your essay (or verbal argument). No matter how thoroughly you go on to support your ideas with careful reasoning and to refute other claims (such as those held by your audience) respectfully, your readers have already decided to ignore you. For example, can you imagine how your roomate would respond if you remark that he or she is a terrible slob? Even if you follow up your comment with photographs of the dirty dishes, cluttered rooms, and soild carpet left in his or her wake, can you imagine that the final outcome of your detailed presentation might be resolution? More likely you will face anger, bitterness, and denial. Watch your introductory prepositions!
Most of us tend to resist change and are threatened by ideas that challenge what we believe. Also, most of us dislike being told what to do and how to think, so even if our brains tell us to agree, our emotions (and egos) tell us to shut down and ignore what we are hearing. A male chauvinist who believes that women are intellectually inferior to men will be unlikely to listen to your argument that women are as intelligent as men. Your quotes from world-renowned educators and philosophers and your statistics from the Stanford-Blinet or SAT, GRE, and MCAT scores would probably be dismissed as inaccurate because they threaten his assumptions. Of course, you could hope that the chauvinist would change his mind over time when he wasn't being pressed, yet you couldn't bet on this outcome.
Because conflict is inevitable, we need to seek creative ways to solve complicated problems and to negotiate differences between opposing parties. Although there are no simple formulas for bringing opposing factions together, we do have a relatively new form of communication founded on Carl Rogers's client-centered therapeutic approach to one-on-one and group counseling. Essentially, the Rogerian problem-solving approach reconceptualizes our goals when we argue. Instead of assuming that an author or speaker shoudl hope to overcome an antagonistic audience with shrewd reasoning, the Rogerian approach would have the author or speaker attempt to reach some common ground with the audience. Thus, in a very real way, Rogerian "persuasion" is not a form of persuasion so much as it is a way of opening communication for negotiating common ground between divergent points of view. In terms of writing, we coud say that the Rogerian approach melds the techniques of informative analyses with those of persuasive reports. Your goal when you employ the tactics of Rogerian problem-solving is not for you to win and for your opponent to lose, a scenario that more often results in both parties losing. Instead, you explore ways that will allow both you and your audience to win.
On Rogerian Argument
adapted from Rhetoric Matters: Language and Argument in Context by Megan McIntyre and Curtis Le Van
Rogerian argument is often difficult for students to understand because it asks them to think about controversial topics in a different way: from the perspective of someone they disagree with. The discussions that follow are meant to help you understand the reason for and the components of an argument in Rogerian style.
On Finding Common Ground
"On Finding Common Ground" is written by Jeffrey Spicer, University of South Florida
"It is only through the clash of adverse opinions that the remainder of the truth has any chance of being supplied."
- John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, 1859
"The major barrier to mutual interpersonal communication is our very natural tendency to judge, to evaluate, to approve or disapprove, the statement of the other person or the other group."
- Carl Rogers, "Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation," 1951
argue (v.) - from the Greek argos, lit. "white," or arguron, lit. "silver," and meaning "to shine forth": in contemporary usage, to present reasons for or against.
In 1951, the psychologist Carl Rogers gave a talk at the Centennial Conference on Communications at Northwestern University that changed the way we think about argument. Psychology at that time was dominated by psychologists like B.F. Skinner, who were learning to scientifically condition thoughts and feelings in the same way that Pavlov had conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of their dinner bell a half-century before.
Rogers, on the other hand, was a humanist. He believed that human speech and human cognition were interrelated and that the success or failure of one was related to the success or failure of the other. In "Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation," he put forward as the cornerstone of his practice the belief that "the whole task of psychotherapy is the task of dealing with a failure in communication" (330).
According to Rogers, the principle difficulty preventing people from settling their differences, indeed from communicating effectively in an everyday sense, was that people couldn't stop evaluating one another. The more important a topic was to them, the more emotional the participants in a discussion became, and the more they were apt to judge what the other person was saying rather than giving it the best hearing they could. In short, Rogers noticed that when people argue, they tend to make judgments about their opponents' positions before they really understand them.
Rogers's goal, then, was to avoid this tendency to constantly evaluate and instead to "listen with understanding." By this, he meant that people should not only try to understand that someone holds a particular viewpoint but also try to get a sense of what it's like to believe that. "What does that mean? It means to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person's point of view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the thing he is talking about" (Rogers 331-32). Rogers himself acknowledged barriers to this kind of understanding. First and foremost, you have to be willing to try it, and not many people are. Rogers's approach seems like you're giving ground to your opponents and, what's worse, sometimes you actually are. "In the first place, it takes courage [...] you run the risk of being changed yourself" (Rogers 333).
It is important to note, though, that this sort of Rogerian understanding is also itself an argumentative tactic. First, people will almost always refuse to consider something if they feel threatened by it, and Rogerian understanding reduces the threat to the opposition. Second, people reciprocate; they tend to treat others as they are treated by them.
Despite the initial difficulties, then, each new understanding of the opponent's view makes the next easier, while at the same time inviting, even obligating, the opponent to strive for a like understanding. "This procedure can dela with the insincerities, the defensive exaggerations, the lies, the 'false fronts' which characterize almost every failure in communication. These defensive distortions drop away with astonishing speed as people find that the only intent is to understand, not judge" (Rogers 336).
This Rogerian process started to make its way into textbooks in 1970. Richard E. Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth L. Pike's introduction of Rogerian psychology in their book Rhetoric: Discovery and Change seeks to simplify some of Rogers's terminology and begin to present the process as a set of rhetorical objectives: "The writer who uses the Rogerian strategy attempts to do three things:
Put like this, in such a simple and reductive way, the process of attaining and expressing Rogerian understanding seems almost easy.
It is important to note that these are not developmental steps intended as heuristics, that indeed there are no sequential stages to a Rogerian argument. They are instead objectives to be pursued independently and recursively with the probably effect of facilitating communication. As Young, Becker, and Pike write, "Rogerian argument has no conventional structure; in fact, users of the strategy deliberately avoid conventional persuasive structures and techniques because these devices tend to produce a sense of threat." This is not to say the argument has no structure, but rather that "the structure is more directly the product of a particular writer, a particular topic, and a particular audience" (275). The danger of argumentative form becoming an exclusionary force, silencing rather than evoking discussion, is therefore greatly reduced.
At this point, then, you may be wondering what Rogerian argument might actually look like in terms of an essay for a composition class. An essay modeled on Rogers's approach should include a few particular parts:
Analyzing Pertinent Conventions
Below are some of the strategies that you can use to negotiate consensus between opposing parties. As usual, you should not consider the following to be a rigid formula. Instead, pick and choose from these strategies in light of your audience, purpose, and intended voice.
Present the Problem
In the introduction, identify the issue and clarify its significance. Because you need to adopt a nonthreatening persona throughout your essay, however, avoid dogmatically presenting your view as the best or only way to solve the problem. Unlike your strategy for shaping a conventional persuasive text, at this point in your discussion you will not want to lay your cards on the table and summarize your presentation. Instead, explain the scope and complexity of the issue. You might want to mention the various approaches that people have taken to solve the problemandf perhaps even suggest that the issue is so complicated that the best you and your readers can hope for is consensus - or agreement on some aspect of the matter.
In your introduction and throughout your essay, you will want to explain the problem in ways that will make your audience say, "Yes, this author understands my position." Because the people whom you are writing for may feel stress when you confront them with an emotionally charged issue and may already have made up their minds firmly on the subject, you should try to interest such reluctant readers by suggesting that you have an innovative way of viewing the problem. Of course, this tactic is effective only when you can indeed follow through and be as original as possible in your treatment of the subject. Otherwise, your readers may reject your ideas because they recognize that you have misrepresented yourself.
Challenge Yourself to Risk Change
Rather than masking your thoughts behind an "objective persona," the Rogerian approach allows you to express your true feelings. However, if you are to meet the ideals of Rogerian communication, you need to challenge your own beliefs; you must be so open-minded that you truly entertain the possibility that your ideas are wrong, or at least not absolutely right. According to Rogers, you must "run the risk of being changed yourself. You ... might find yourself influenced in your attitudes or your personality."
Elaborate on the Value of Opposing Positions
In this part of your argument you will want to elaborate on which of your opponent's claims about the problem are correct. For example, if your roommate's messiness is driving you crazy but you still want to live with him or her, stress that cleanliness is not the be-all-and-end-all of human life. Commend your roommate for helping you focus on your studies and express appreciation for all of the times that he or she has pitched in to clean up. And, of course, you would also want to admit to a few annoying habits of your own, such as taking thirty-minute showers or talking on your cell phone late at night while your roommate is trying to sleep! After viewing the problem from your roommate's perspective, you might even be willing to explore how your problem with compulsive neatness is itself a problem.
Show Instances When Your Assertions Are Valid
Once you have identified the problem in as nonthreatening a way as possible, established a fair-minded persona, and called for some level of consensus based on a "higher" interest, you have reached the most important stage in Rogerian negotiation: you can now present your position. At this point in your argument, you do not want to slap down a "But!" or "However!" and then come out of your corner punching. Remember the spirit of Rogerian problem solving: your ultimate goal is not to beat your audience, but to communicate with them and to promote a workable compromise. For example, in the sample argument with your roommate, rather than issuing an ultimatum such as "Unless you start picking up after yourself and doing your fair share of the housework, I'm moving out," you could say, "I realize that you view housekeeping as a less important activity than I do, but I need to let you know that I find your messiness to be highly stressful, and I'm wondering what kind of compromise we can make so we can continue living together." Yes, this statement carries an implied threat, but note how this sentence is framed positively and minimalizes the emotional intensity inherent in the situation.
To achieve the nonthreatening tone needed to diffuse emotional situations, avoid exaggerating your claims or using biased, emotional language. Also, avoid attacking your audience's claims as exaggerated. Whenever you feel angry or defensive, take a deep breath and look for points in which you can agree with or understand your opponents. When you are really emotional about an issue, try to cool off enough to recognize where your language is loaded with explosive terms. To embrace the Rogerian approach, remember that you need to defuse your temper and set your pride and ego aside.
Present Your Claim in a Nonthreatening Way
Admittedly, it is difficult to substantiate an argument while acknowledging the value of competing positions. Yet if you have done an effective job in the early part of your essay, then your audience perceives you to be a reasonable person - someone worth listening to. Consequently, you should not sell yourself short when presenting your position.
Because of the emotionally charged context of your communication situation, you still need to maintain the same open-minded persona that you established in the introductory paragraphs. Although your main focus in this section is to develop the validity of your claim, you can maintain your fair-minded persona by recalling significant counterarguments and by elaborating on a few limitations of your claim. You can also remind your readers that you are not expecting them to accept your claim completely. Instead, you are merely attempting to show that under certain circumstances your position is valid.
Search for a Compromise and Call for a Higher Interest
Near the conclusion of your essay, you may find it useful to encourage your audience to seek a compromise with you under a call for a "higher interest."
The Rogerian method of problem solving is designed for exploring controversial interpersonal, social, and political problems. You can use these techniques to help you begin or end a personal relationship or to help you effectively communicate with your professors, etc. Knowledge of the Rogerian method can help you deal with instances of sexual discrimination in the workplace or help you encourage insecure authorities to take the action that you want. You could use Rogerian approaches to encourage your classmates and other students at your school to be more sympatheticabout social problems such as poverty and ecological issues. To select a subject for a Rogerian analysis, try reviewing your journal and freewrite about significant interpersonal problems you have dealt with in your life. Below are a few questions that may help you identify a subject:
Prewriting and Drafting Strategies
Analyze Your Communication Situation
To help you get a handle on which claims you are willing to relinquish and which you wish to negotiate, write a profile of your anticipated audience. Because awareness of the opinions and fears of your audience is so crucial to successfully negotiating differences among competing positions, you need to try to "become" your audience. As usual, this process involves asking, "What do my readers believe and know about the subject? Why do they think and feel my position is wrong?" Ideally, this process extends beyond merely considering your audience's needs to seting aside your thoughts and feelings and embracing the opposition's notions about the subject.
After you have gotten "under the skin" of your audience, freewrite an essay about your subject from their perspective. Doing this in a Rogerian way means that you truly challenge your own beliefs and present your opponent's viewpoints as strongly as you would your own. If you find yourself unwilling to explore the strengths of your opponent's position, then you should select a new subject.
Write an Outline
After freewriting about your opponent's positions as if they were your own, you will probably have excellent ideas about how best to shape your essay. Youmay find it useful to jot down your objectives as suggested in the following outline. Remember, though, don't let the outline control your thoughts. If insights occur while you are writing, experiment with them.
Revising and Editing Strategies
By analyzing the strengths and weaknesses that your classmates and instructor have identified in past papers, you can know what special problems you shoud look for when evaluating your persuasive essay. As always, give yourself as much time as possible between drafts. Below I have listed some questions that highlight special concerns you will need to address when writing your Rogerian essay.
Is the Subject Appropriate for a Rogerian Approach?
A day or so after you have completed the first draft of your essay, reread it from the perspective of your intended audience. To conduct an honest self-evaluation, try to answer the following questions:
Read Your Work Aloud
Before submitting your essay to your peers or teacher, read it aloud to yourself several times. As you read, make a note of passages that seem difficult to read or sound awkward. Question whether the tone in the paragraphs is appropriate, given your audience and purpose. For example, can you find any passages that sound insincere or condescending?
Share Your Work with People Who Disagree with You
Ask people with different viewpoints from yours to critique your work. Let them know that you are attempting to seek a compromise between your position and theirs and that you welcome their suggestions.
Do a Criteria-Based Evaluation
In addition to making notes on criticisms of your text and ideas for improving it, you may find the following criteria-based format a useful way of identifying and correcting any weaknesses in your peers' drafts or your own.
(Low) (Middle) (High)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
II. Substantive Revision
(Low) (Middle) (High)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
III. Edited Document
When your professor returns your Rogerian report to you, take a few moments to reflect on your growth as a writer. To help put your role as "apprentice" in perspective, you may find it useful to consider the following questions in your Writing and Research Notebook:
|Read the articles:|
Emerging nations are generally defined as those countries working to become industrialized (such countries include Cuba, Indonesia, Nigeria, India, etc…). in 1 to 2 pages, Research and identify one emerging country and discuss why Marxism might be an attractive option for that country and its leaders. In addition, based on your readings and understanding of Tocqueville, how might he view that country if he were to visit it today.
I chose to assess dual authority and the all-channel network. For dual authority, some benefits are that the management and decision-making process is lightened, or limited, from the responsibilities of the head person in charge at the very top. This allows oversight to be focused at the managerial levels under the head to maintain mission and vision for the organization. Tasks are delegated with specific focus at this level. Some major disadvantages of dual authority include the increased barriers of communication between lower and higher echelons throughout the organization. These barriers are likely to project an undesirable separation between the two levels. For the all-channel network, benefits rely greatly on the medium of lateral and cross-sectional models of communication. In this format, ideas and tasks are discussed and developed between individuals at a common, equal level in pursuit of a singular advancement for the goal set forth. The benefit for such a medium is from the exchange of these ideas and progress made by the group effort. Some disadvantages of the all-channel network rely just as heavily on the communication exchange format. For example, when the group contains poor communicators, planners, or unmotivated/unengaged individuals, the group directly suffers from these barriers and performance is not meeting its potential for effectiveness. While the morale in this format is high and the information flows abundantly, the disadvantage increases through poor conflict resolution.
The appropriate use of dual authority is an apt format for task-oriented group efforts. When the group consists of individuals whom bring concentrated efforts that singularly add to the holistic group effort, under the management of the dual authority, the task can be guided and met effectively. The appropriate use of the all-channel network is applied when the individuals in the group do not necessarily have separated or specialized tasks, but the individuals need to be able to clearly comprehend the tasks they provide will be seen greater as a group effort. Plainly, the individuals don't have to specialize in their one area, as each individual will be expected, but the communication between all group members is clear in pursuit of the task designated.
Top team performance can be encouraged in the dual authority format when every individual understands their role is a direct contribution the greater task at hand. Success is dependent on every individual performing their duties. For the all-channel network, all parties need to be aware of the other members' efforts to understand the impact that is made as a group.
My example for dual authority: When I was assigned to the USS Carl Vinson, I was in charge of training and monitoring all fire-fighting teams during casualty drills. I delegated this authority to two of my senior members under me. One managed the initial attack teams, while the other managed the back-up/secondary responders. Each manager, and team member under these managers, had localized or specified functions on the team (like a baseball team). For the individual members to focus on their tasks, the group was able to succeed in this manner.
My example for all channel network: I was once part of a two-month long exclusive training process which was very specific in its format. "I one member fails, the team fails." We failed repeatedly because the purpose of the group dynamic was to provide all team members the opportunities and tools to succeed as individuals and as a uniform group. We used the all-channel network to clearly promote positive communication and clear guidance for our tasks assigned.
Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2013). Reframing organizations artistry, choice, and leadership. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass.
For this discussion I chose you use one boss and circle network. The one boss structure is simply that, one person holds the authority over all others. Communication and decision making flow up and down between the boss and the worker and information is not collaborated between the workers themselves. This structure is proves fast and proficient results when applied to “simple and straightforward situations” (Bolman & Deal , 2013). This structure is not ideal for environments that are complex; they seem to overload the boss causing delays in production, poor decisions being made resulting in subordinates becoming discouraged with instructions that they receive late or “out of touch”(Bolman & Deal , 2013).
The circle network is a structure in which communication and decision making flow equally from one group member to the next. Each person is afforded the opportunity to add or modify the information as it flows through them. This structure relies on lateral coordination and simplifies communication. Each member of the circle works directly with the people on either side of them, making operations easier to manage. The down side to this style is if there is a “weak link in the chain” (Bolman & Deal , 2013) it can completely destroy the business. The circle structure can be slowed significantly with complex situations that require more information exchange between the network.
When building a team, the structure must be properly selected in order to increase team performance. Katzenbach and Smith (1993) identify six characteristics of high-performing teams:
Bolman, L. G., & Deal , T. E. (2013). Reframing organization: Artistry, choice and leadership (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-bass.
Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. Boaton, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
The two structural designs that I have chosen to write one are the one-boss and simple hierarchy. one-boss arrangement; one person has authority over others. The flow of information and decisions is from the top to down. Subordinates communicate to the management primarily through the official leader rather their colleagues. This configuration is fast and most efficient when applied in simple and straight forward situations (Bolman & Deal, 2013). The downside to this configuration is that under complex situations, the workload overwhelms the boss, which affects production time and leads to bad decision making, unless the person has an unusual level of skill, expertise, and energy, subordinates become quickly frustrated with directives or outputs that are out of touch (Bolman & Deal, 2013). An example one-boss configuration is sole proprietorship, where every decision and information has to come from the owner the his/her employees.
The simple hierarchy configuration has a middle manager that reports to the boss and he/she supervises and communicates with subordinate staff (Bolman & Deal, 2013). A similar arrangement is in the Army where the company commander focus’ on the running the organization leaving the training and operations of the company in the care of the first sergeant. This arrangement can be more efficient than the one-boss configuration, but on the other hand it limits access to the top. At the same time, friction between operational and top level managers is in commonplace, and number two may be tempted to usurp number one’s position (Bolman & Deal, 2013).
Organizational structure must be properly selected during the team building process. (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993) identified six characteristics that distinguish high performance teams, these are, high performance teams:
a. Shape purpose in response to a demand or opportunity
b. Specific, measurable goals
c. Manageable size
d. Right mix of expertise
e. Common commitment
f. Collectively accountable
Bolman, L. G., & Deal , T. E. (2013). Reframing organization: Artistry, choice and leadership (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-bass.
Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. Boaton, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
|150-200 words per response|
Professor M. Majsak
23 February 2018
Crawford, Mary, and Danielle Popp. "Sexual double standards: A review and methodological critique of two decades of research." Journal of Sex Research, vol. 40, no. 1, 2003, pp. 13-26.
This is an article that has been reviewed since 1980 that look into the sexual double standards that have in existence in the society. It reviews the article that were written about the subject since 1950s. It show the development of the sexual double standards in various decades and try to analyze the article that were authored during that time that touch on the subject. The author in quest to find on the existence of the sexual double standards delve to study various research that were conducted by different people in order to find out its characteristics in those times. From the research finding the authors found out that the research that were conducted at the same period of time had the same characteristic. One of the finding according to one of the research on sexual double standards in 1950 was that men gained fame on the number of the women that each had.
Kreager, Derek A., et al. "The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and Adolescent Peer Acceptance." Sex Roles, vol. 75, no. 7-8, 2016, pp. 377-392.
This is an article that were compiled by NCBI about the sexual double standards in the society. It major talks the subject in among the adolescence by using longitudinal social network data to study and test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behavior and peer acceptance. From the article the authors tries to find out whether the rate at which girls and boys are reported to have engaged in sex. It also look into the social response to sex among different genders in the society. Another factor that the article tries to find out is how peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both heavy and light sexual behavior. Lastly, the article tries to find out the influence of cultures among various societies on issues of sexual double standards.
Socolow, Susan M., et al. "Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition: Women in Latin American History." The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 75, no. 4, 1995, p. 684.
The article is about the sexual social issues that are faced in the Latin America. Among these issues are the sexual double standards among men and women. It tries to find out the factors that the culture contribute to the sexual vices faced. By studying various research that were conducted by other scholars the authors are able to derive the drive force among the various communities. From the outcome of the study the authors found out that the major contributor to the vices are how different ganders in the society view the issues of gander. Age is not left out in the study where the authors tried to identify the stages in life where the social vices are common. Lastly, the authors tried to identify the role of religion in ensuring that the issues are reduced.
No one can say, on seeing a fighting bull in the corrals, whether that bull will be brave in the ring although, usually, the quieter the bull is, the less nervous he seems, the calmer he is, the more chance that he will turn out brave. The reason for this is that the braver he is, usually, the more confident he is and the less he bluffs. All supposed exterior signs of danger that a bull gives, such as pawing the ground, threatening with his horns, or bellowing are forms of bluffing. They are warnings given in order that combat may be avoided if possible. The truly brave bull gives no warning before he charges except the fixing of his eye on his enemy, the raising of the crest of muscle in his neck, the twitching of an ear, and, as he charges, the lifting of his tail. A completely brave bull, if he is in perfect condition will never open his mouth, will not even let his tongue out, during the course of the entire fight and, at the finish, with the sword in him, will come toward the man while his legs support him, his mouth tight shut to keep the blood in.
Now what makes a bull brave is first the strain of fighting blood which can only be kept pure by conscientious testing in the tientas and second his own health and condition. Health and condition will not replace scrupulous breeding, but lack of them will ruin the natural inherited bravery of an animal, will make his body incapable of responding to it, or else cause the bravery to burn up as a fire of straw, burning out in a single flare and the bull being then empty and hollow. Health and condition are determined, granting there has been no disease on the ranch, by pasture and water.
It is the differences of pasture and water in different parts of Spain caused by the different climates, the changes in composition of the soil and the distances the stock must go to water from their pastures that make entirely different types of bulls. Spain is more a continent than a country in regard to climates, for the climate and vegetation of the north, of Navarra for example, has nothing in common with that of Valencia or Andalucia and none of those three, except parts of Navarra, have any resemblance to the high plateau of Castilla. So the bulls raised in Navarra, Andalucia and Salamanca differ greatly, and this is not due to them coming from differing strains. Navarrese bulls are almost a different race, smaller and usually of a reddish color, but when bull raisers in Navarra have taken seed bulls and cows from an Andalucian ranch and tried to transplant them to Navarra they have invariably taken on the present vices of the northern bulls, nervousness, uncertainty in attack and lack of true bravery, and have lost their original character without gaining any of the quickness, courage and deerlike speed that characterized the old strains of Navarra. Bulls in Navarra are about bred out due to inbreeding of the original Navarrese strain and the selling of their best cows to France a number of years ago for use in the Course Landaise, a French form of bull fête, and the inability of the Andalucian and Castillian strains to retain their type and bravery on the northern ranges although many costly experiments have been made to develop a new and brave Navarrese strain. The best fighting bulls come from Andalucia, Colmenar, Salamanca, and, exceptionally, Portugal. The most typical bulls are those of Andalucia. The Andalucian breeds have been taken to Salamanca and perverted by breeding them down in size and in length of horn in order to please the bullfighters. Salamanca is an ideal province for bull breeding. The pastures and water are good and the bulls from there are sold at under four years and often, to make them appear larger and older, are fed on grain for a time which gives them a false size, covering the natural muscle with fat, giving them a false well-being, causing them to tire quickly and to be short of wind. Many bulls from Salamanca, if fought at four and one-half to five years, hence having their natural size and not needing to be fed up on grain to reach the government-required poundage, with a year more on the range and
the consequent added maturity, would be the ideal fighting bulls except for a tendency that they have to lose frankness and bravery when they have passed their fourth year. Occasionally you will see such a corrida in Madrid, but on the publicity they receive from such a splendid lot of bulls and with the aid and connivances of the bullfighters the same breeders that send such an ideal corrida to the capital will sell fifteen or twenty other corridas throughout the provinces in a season which will be composed of bulls under the minimum age, stuffed on grain to make them seem big, giving the minimum of danger because of their lack of experience in using their horns, and helping in every way, by depriving the spectacle of that which makes it, the true fighting bull, to contribute to the decadence of bullfighting.
For the third factor in the making of a bull, after breeding and condition, is age. With any one of these three factors lacking you cannot have a complete fighting bull. A bull is not mature until after his fourth year. It is true that after his third year he looks mature, but he is not. Maturity brings strength, resistance, but above all, knowledge. Now the knowledge of a bull consists principally in his memory of experience, he forgets nothing, and in his knowledge of, and ability to use, his horns. It is the horn that makes bullfighting and the ideal bull is one whose memory is as clean as possible from any experience of bullfighting so that he will learn everything that he is to learn in the ring; being dominated if the bullfighter works him properly, and dominating the bullfighter if his work is deficient or cowardly; and for this bull to provide the most real danger and put the bullfighter to the necessary test of knowledge of how to handle a bull properly he must know how to use his horns. At four years a bull has this knowledge, he has acquired it by fighting on the range, the only way he can acquire it. To see two bulls fight is a beautiful sight. They use their horns as a fencer does his weapon. They strike, parry, feint, block, and have an exactitude of aim that is amazing. When they both know how to use the horn the combat usually ends as does a fight between two really skillful boxers, with all dangerous blows stopped, without bloodshed and with mutual respect. They do not have to kill each other for a decision. The bull that loses is the first one that breaks and turns acknowledging the other's superiority. I have seen them fight again and again for small causes that I was not able to make out; coming head on, feinting with their master horn, the horns clattering as they knocked together, the blows being parried and countered, then, suddenly one bull would wheel and turn and gallop off. Once though, in the corrals after a fight in which one bull turned away admitting he was beaten, the other followed him and charged, getting the horn in the defeated bull's flank and throwing him over. Before the bull that was down could get to his feet the other was on him, driving the horn in with chopping thrusts of his neck and head; driving in all the time. The defeated bull got to his feet once, wheeled to face head-on, but in the first horn exchange he was caught in the eye, then went down under another charge. The bull killed him without letting him get to his feet again. Before the fight, two days later, that same bull killed another in the corrals, but when he came into the ring he was one of the best animals, both for bullfighters and public, that I have ever seen. His horn knowledge had been acquired as it should be. He had no vices with the horn, he simply knew how to use it, and the matador, Felix Rodriguez, dominated him, did splendid work with the cape and muleta and killed him perfectly.
A three-year-old bull may know how to use his horns, but it is exceptional. He has not had enough experience. Bulls over five years know too well how to use their armament. They have had so much experience and become so skilled with the horn that the necessity for overcoming and watching out for this makes it almost impossible for the bullfighter to do anything brilliant. They make an interesting fight, but you need a thorough knowledge of bullfighting to appreciate the matadors' work. Nearly every bull has one horn that he prefers to use more than the other and this horn is called the
master horn. They are often almost as right or left horned as people are right or left handed, but there is no such preponderance in favor of the right horn. One is as liable to be the master as the other. You may see which horn is the master when the banderilleros run the bull with the cape at the start of the fight, but there is another way you can often tell. A bull when he is about to charge, or when he is angry, twitches one or, occasionally, both ears. The ear that he twitches is usually on the side of the horn that he uses for preference.
Bulls vary greatly in the way they use their horns; some are called assassins from the way in which, attacking the picadors, they will not give a single chop until they are sure of their range; then when they are close, driving the horn into the vulnerable part of the horse with the surety of a dagger stroke. Such bulls have usually attacked a herder or killed a horse previously at some time on the range, and they remember how it is done. They do not charge from a distance and try to overthrow horse and man, but only to get in under the picador in some way, often chopping at the shaft of the pole with their horns, so they can place their horn stroke. For this reason the number of horses killed by a bull may not be an indication of his bravery nor of his power, for a bull with a deadly horn will kill horses where a braver, more powerful bull will, perhaps, only overthrow horse and rider, and, in his violence, aim scarcely at all with the horn.
A bull that has gored a man becomes much more liable to gore again. A great part of the matadors who have been gored and killed in the ring have been caught and tossed previously by the bull that finally killed them. Of course many times this repetition of the goring in the course of the same fight is due to the man being shocked into grogginess or deprived of his agility or judgment of distance by the first tossing, but it is also true that a bull which has found the man under the lure or after the placing of a pair of banderillas, will repeat the process by which he caught him. He will give a sudden chop with his head as he passes the man while following the cape or muleta, or a braking with his feet in the centre of the charge, or a swerving from the cloth toward the man with his horn or whatever act it was which caught the man the first time. Similarly there are certain strains even of bulls in which the ability to learn rapidly in the ring is highly developed. These bulls must be fought and killed as rapidly as possible with the minimum of exposure by the man, for they learn more rapidly than the fight ordinarily progresses and become exaggeratedly difficult to work with and kill.
Bulls of this sort are the old caste of fighting bulls raised by the sons of Don Eduardo Miura of Sevilla, although the sons of that most scrupulous bull breeder have tried to make their bulls less dangerous and more acceptable to the bullfighters by crossbreeding with bulls of the Vistahermosa strain, the noblest, bravest and most candid of all the strains, and have succeeded in turning out bulls that have the imposing size, horns, and all the other appearance of the old deadly Miuras without their ferocious and crescient intelligence which made them the curse of all bullfighters. There is a breed of bulls which have the old Miura caste, blood, stature, power and fierceness that are raised in Portugal by Don José Palha, and if you ever see a bullfight with them advertised you will see what bulls can be at their fiercest, most powerful and most dangerous. They say that the Palha range where the mature bulls pasture is twelve kilometres from the water, I do not vouch for this, and that the bulls develop their great strength, wind and staying power by having to go so far for water. This was told me by a cousin of Palha, but I have never checked up on it.
As certain strains of fighting bulls will be particularly stupid and brave and others intelligent and brave, others will have different characteristics which are highly individual and yet will persist in most of the bulls of that breed. The bulls formerly bred and owned by the Duke of Veragua were examples of this. They were at the beginning of this century and for years after, among the bravest, strongest, fastest and finest looking of all the bulls of the Peninsula. But what were only minor
tendencies twenty years earlier finally came to be the dominant characteristics of the whole strain. When they were nearly perfect bulls one of their first characteristics was a great rush of speed in the first third of the fight which left the bull rather winded and logy at the end. Another characteristic was that once a Veragua had caught and gored a man or a horse he would not leave him but would attack again and again, seeming to want to destroy his victim entirely; but they were very brave, willing to charge, and followed cape and muleta well. In twenty years there was almost nothing left of the original good qualities except the first speed in charging, while the tendency to become heavy and leaden as the fight went on was so exaggerated that a Veragua bull was almost dead on its feet after the first contact with the picadors. The tendency to keep on after a victim persisted, greatly exaggerated, but the speed, strength and bravery were all decreased to the minimum. In this way great strains of bulls will decrease in value for fighting in spite of the care and scruples of the breeder. He will try crossing with other strains, the only remedy, and sometimes these will be successful and there will be a new good strain, but more often they will cause the breed to disintegrate even more rapidly and lose whatever good characteristics it had.
An unscrupulous bull breeder can buy the bulls of a good breed and by profiting by their reputation for good presentation and bravery and himself selling everything with horns that is not a cow as a bull, destroy the good name of the breed and make a certain amount of money in a few years. He will not destroy the value of the breed as long as the blood remains good and the bulls have pasture and water that are good for them. A scrupulous breeder can take the same bulls and by testing them carefully and selling only those for fights which show bravery re-establish the breed in a short time. But when the blood that made the reputation of a breed goes thin, and defects that were only minor characteristics become dominant, then a breed, except for the occasional good bull that will be produced as an exception, is finished unless revived by a lucky and dangerous cross. I saw the last of the good bulls, the fast decay and the finish of the Veragua breed, and it was sad to watch. The present Duke sold them finally and the new owners are trying to revive the strain again.
Half-bred bulls or bulls in which there is a little fighting bull blood, called moruchos in Spanish, are often very brave while calves, showing the best characteristics of fighting stock, but as they reach maturity they lose all bravery and style and are altogether unfit for the ring. This falling off in bravery and style on complete maturity is characteristic of all bulls in which the fighting strain is mixed with ordinary blood and is the principal difficulty the Salamanca breeders face. There it is not the result of half-caste breeding, but is rather a characteristic seemingly inherent in bulls bred and pastured in that country. As a result if the Salamanca breeder wishes his bulls to come out with the maximum of bravery he must sell them young. These immature bulls have done more harm to bullfighting in every way than almost any other influence.
The main strains from which most of the best of the present-day breeds of bulls come, directly or through various crossings, are those of Vasquez, Cabrera, Vista Hermosa, Saavedra, Lesaca and Ibarra.
The breeders who furnish the best bulls to-day are the sons of Pablo Romero of Sevilla, the Conde de Santa Coloma of Madrid, Conde de la Corte of Badajoz, Doña Concepcion de la Concha y Sierra of Sevilla, daughter of the famous widow of Concha y Sierra; Doña Carmen de Federico, of Madrid, present owner of the Murube breed; the sons of Don Eduardo Miura of Sevilla, Marques de Villamarta of Sevilla, Don Argimiro Perez Tabernero, Don Gracialano Perez Tabernero and Don Antonio Perez Tabernero, all of Salamanca; Don Francisco Sanchez of Coquilla in the province of Salamanca, Don Florentino Sotomayor of Cordoba, Don José Pereira Palha of Villafranca de Xifra, Portugal, the widow of Don Felix Gomez of Colmenar Viejo, Doña Enriqueta de la Cova of Sevilla,
Don Felix Moreno Ardanuy of Sevilla, Marques de Albayda of Madrid, and Don Julian Fernandez Martinez of Colmenar Viejo, who owns the old breed of Don Vicente Martinez.
There is not a word of conversation in the chapter, Madame, yet we have reached the end. I'm very sorry.
No sorrier than I am, sir.
What would you like to have? More major truths about the passions of the race? A diatribe against venereal disease? A few bright thoughts on death and dissolution? Or would you care to hear the author's experience with a porcupine during his earliest years spent in Emmett and Charlevoix counties in the state of Michigan?
Please, sir, no more about animals to-day.
instructive? I do not feel my best to-day.
popular style and is designed to be the Whittier's Snow Bound of our time and at the end it's simply full of conversation.
If it has conversation in it I would like to read it. Do so then, it's called -------
A NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DEAD Old lady: I don't care for the title.
Author: I didn't say you would. You may very well not like any of it. But here it is: A Natural History of the Dead
It has always seemed to me that the war has been omitted as a field for the observations of the naturalist. We have charming and sound accounts of the flora and fauna of Patagonia by the late W. H. Hudson; the Reverend Gilbert White has written most interestingly of the Hoopoe on its occasional and not at all common visits to Selborne and Bishop Stanley has given us a valuable, although popular, Familiar History of Birds. Can we not hope to furnish the reader with a few rational and interesting facts about the dead? I hope so.
When that persevering traveller, Mungo Park, was at one period of his course fainting in the vast wilderness of an African desert, naked and alone, considering his days as numbered and nothing appearing to remain for him to do but to lie down and die, a small moss-flower of extraordinary beauty caught his eye. "Though the whole plant," says he, "was no larger than one of my fingers, I could not contemplate the delicate conformation of its roots, leaves and capsules without admiration. Can that Being who planted, watered and brought to perfection, in this obscure part of the world, a thing which appears of so small importance, look with unconcern upon the situation and suffering of creatures formed after his own image? Surely not. Reflections like these would not allow me to despair; I started up and, disregarding both hunger and fatigue, travelled forward, assured that relief was at hand; and I was not disappointed."
With a disposition to wonder and adore in like manner, as Bishop Stanley says, can no branch of Natural History be studied without increasing that faith, love and hope which we also, every one of us, need in our journey through the wilderness of life? Let us therefore see what inspiration we may
derive from the dead.
animals, and I have frequently seen dead mares among the horses. An interesting aspect of war, too, is that it is only there that the naturalist has an opportunity to observe the dead of mules. In twenty years of observation in civil life I had never seen a dead mule and had begun to entertain doubts as to whether these animals were really mortal. On rare occasions I had seen what I took to be dead mules, but on close approach these always proved to be living creatures who seemed to be dead through their quality of complete repose. But in war these animals succumb in much the same manner as the more common and less hardy horse.
Old lady: I thought you said it wasn't about animals.
declivities whence they had been pushed to rid the road of their encumbrance. They seemed a fitting enough sight in the mountains where one was accustomed to their presence and looked less incongruous there than they did later, at Smyrna, where the Greeks broke the legs of all their baggage animals and pushed them off the quay into the shallow water to drown. The numbers of broken-legged mules and horses drowning in the shallow water called for a Goya to depict them. Although, speaking literally, one can hardly say that they called for a Goya since there has only been one Goya, long dead, and it is extremely doubtful if these animals, were they able to call, would call for pictorial representation of their plight but, more likely, would, if they were articulate, call for some one to alleviate their condition.
Old lady: You wrote about those mules before.
dead being men that the sight of a dead woman is quite shocking. I first saw inversion of the usual sex of the dead after the explosion of a munition factory which had been situated in the countryside near Milan, Italy. We drove to the scene of the disaster in trucks along poplar-shaded roads, bordered with ditches containing much minute animal life, which I could not clearly observe because of the great clouds of dust raised by the trucks. Arriving where the munition plant had been, some of us were put to patrolling about those large stocks of munitions which for some reason had not exploded, while others were put at extinguishing a fire which had gotten into the grass of an adjacent field, which task being concluded, we were ordered to search the immediate vicinity and surrounding fields for bodies. We found and carried to an improvised mortuary a good number of these and, I must admit, frankly, the shock it was to find that these dead were women rather than men. In those days women had not yet commenced to wear their hair cut short, as they did later for several years in Europe and America, and the most disturbing thing, perhaps because it was the most unaccustomed, was the presence and, even more disturbing, the occasional absence of this long hair. I remember that after we had searched quite thoroughly for the complete dead we collected fragments. Many of these were detached from a heavy, barbed-wire fence which had surrounded the position of the factory and from the still existent portions of which we picked many of these detached bits which illustrated only too well the tremendous energy of high explosive. Many fragments we found a considerable distance away in the fields, they being carried farther by their own weight. On our return to Milan I recall one or two of us discussing the occurrence and agreeing that the quality of unreality and the fact that there were no wounded did much to rob the disaster of a horror which might have been much greater. Also the fact that it had been so immediate and that the dead were in consequence still as little unpleasant
as possible to carry and deal with made it quite removed from the usual battlefield experience. The pleasant, though dusty, ride through the beautiful Lombard countryside also was a compensation for the unpleasantness of the duty and on our return, while we exchanged impressions, we all agreed that it was indeed fortunate that the fire which broke out just before we arrived had been brought under control as rapidly as it had and before it had attained any of the seemingly huge stocks of unexploded munitions. We agreed too that the picking up of the fragments had been an extraordinary business; it being amazing that the human body should be blown into pieces which exploded along no anatomical lines, but rather divided as capriciously as the fragmentation in the burst of a high explosive shell.
Old lady: This is not amusing.
limited period and I will take first that following the Austrian offensive of June, 1918, in Italy as one in which the dead were present in their greatest numbers, a withdrawal having been forced and an advance later made to recover the ground lost so that the positions after the battle were the same as before except for the presence of the dead. Until the dead are buried they change somewhat in appearance each day. The color change in Caucasian races is from white to yellow, to yellow-green, to black. If left long enough in the heat the flesh comes to resemble coal-tar, especially where it has been broken or torn, and it has quite a visible tarlike iridescence. The dead grow larger each day until sometimes they become quite too big for their uniforms, filling these until they seem blown tight enough to burst. The individual members may increase in girth to an unbelievable extent and faces fill as taut and globular as balloons. The surprising thing, next to their progressive corpulence, is the amount of paper that is scattered about the dead. Their ultimate position, before there is any question of burial, depends on the location of the pockets in the uniform. In the Austrian army these pockets were in the back of the breeches and the dead, after a short time, all consequently lay on their faces, the two hip pockets pulled out and, scattered around them in the grass, all those papers their pockets had contained. The heat, the flies, the indicative positions of the bodies in the grass and the amount of paper scattered are the impressions one retains. The smell of a battlefield in hot weather one cannot recall. You can remember that there was such a smell, but nothing ever happens to you to bring it back. It is unlike the smell of a regiment, which may come to you suddenly while riding in the street car and you will look across and see the man who has brought it to you. But the other thing is gone as completely as when you have been in love; you remember things that happened, but the sensation cannot be recalled.
Old lady: I like it whenever you write about love.
hot weather to restore his confidence. There were always poppies in the wheat in the end of June and in July, and the mulberry trees were in full leaf and one could see the heat waves rise from the barrels of the guns where the sun struck them through the screens of leaves; the earth was turned a bright yellow at the edge of holes where mustard gas shells had been and the average broken house is finer to see than one that has never been shelled, but few travellers would take a good full breath of that early summer air and have any such thoughts as Mungo Park about those formed in His own image.
The first thing that you found about the dead was that, hit badly enough, they died like animals. Some quickly from a little wound you would not think would kill a rabbit. They died from little wounds as rabbits die sometimes from three or four small grains of shot that hardly seem to break the
skin. Others would die like cats, a skull broken in and iron in the brain, they lie alive two days like cats that crawl into the coal bin with a bullet in the brain and will not die until you cut their heads off. Maybe cats do not die then, they say they have nine lives, I do not know, but most men die like animals, not men. I'd never seen a natural death, so called, and so I blamed it on the war and like the persevering traveller, Mungo Park, knew that there was something else, that always absent something else, and then I saw one.
The only natural death I've ever seen, outside of loss of blood, which isn't bad, was death from Spanish influenza. In this you drown in mucus, choking, and how you know the patient's dead is; at the end he shits the bed full. So now I want to see the death of any self-called Humanist because a persevering traveller like Mungo Park or me lives on and maybe yet will live to see the actual death of members of this literary sect and watch the noble exits that they make. In my musings as a naturalist it has occurred to me that while decorum is an excellent thing some must be indecorous if the race is to be carried on since the position prescribed for procreation is indecorous, highly indecorous, and it occurred to me that perhaps that is what these people are, or were; the children of decorous cohabitation. But regardless of how they started I hope to see the finish of a few, and speculate how worms will try that long preserved sterility; with their quaint pamphlets gone to bust and into foot- notes all their lust.
Old lady: That's a very nice line about lust.
the dead, even though the designation may mean nothing by the time this work is published, yet it is unfair to the other dead, who were not dead in their youth of choice, who owned no magazines, many of whom had doubtless never even read a review, that one has seen in the hot weather with a half- pint of maggots working where their mouths have been. It was not always hot weather for the dead, much of the time it was the rain that washed them clean when they lay in it and made the earth soft when they were buried in it and sometimes then kept on until the earth was mud and washed them out and you had to bury them again. Or in the winter in the mountains you had to put them in the snow and when the snow melted in the spring some one else had to bury them. They had beautiful burying grounds in the mountains, war in the mountains is the most beautiful of all war, and in one of them, at a place called Pocol, they buried a general who was shot through the head by a sniper. This is where those writers are mistaken who write books called Generals Die in Bed, because this general died in a trench dug in snow, high in the mountains, wearing an Alpini hat with an eagle feather in it and a hole in front you couldn't put your little finger in and a hole in back you could put your fist in, if it were a small fist and you wanted to put it there, and much blood in the snow. He was a damned fine general, and so was General von Behr who commanded the Bavarian Alpenkorps troops at the battle of Caporetto and was killed in his staff car by the Italian rearguard as he drove into Udine ahead of his troops, and the titles of all such books should be Generals Usually Die in Bed, if we are to have any sort of accuracy in such things.
Old lady: When does the story start?
that was protected by the mountain from any shelling. They carried them into a cave that had been dug into the mountainside before the earth froze. It was in this cave that a man whose head was broken as a flower-pot may be broken, although it was all held together by membranes and a skillfully applied bandage now soaked and hardened, with the structure of his brain disturbed by a piece of broken steel in it, lay a day, a night, and a day. The stretcher bearers asked the doctors to go in and have a look at him. They saw him each time they made a trip and even when they did not look at him they heard him breathing. The doctor's eyes were red and the lids swollen, almost shut from tear gas. He looked at the man twice; once in daylight, once with a flashlight. That too would have made a good etching for Goya, the visit with the flashlight, I mean. After looking at him the second time the doctor believed the stretcher-bearers when they said the soldier was still alive.
"What do you want me to do about it?" he asked.
There was nothing they wanted done. But after a while they asked permission to carry him out and lay him with the badly wounded.
"No. No. No!" said the doctor who was busy. "What's the matter? Are you afraid of him?" "We don't like to hear him in there with the dead."
"No," said the doctor. "No. Didn't you hear me say no?"
"Why don't you give him an overdose of morphine?" asked an artillery officer who was waiting to have a wound in his arm dressed.
"Do you think that is the only use I have for morphine? Would you like me to have to operate without morphine? You have a pistol, go out and shoot him yourself."
"He's been shot already," said the officer. "If some of you doctors were shot you'd be different."
"Thank you very much," said the doctor waving a forceps in the air. "Thank you a thousand times. What about these eyes?" He pointed the forceps at them. "How would you like these?"
"Tear gas. We call it lucky if it's tear gas."
"Because you leave the line," said the doctor. "Because you come running here with your tear gas to be evacuated. You rub onions in your eyes."
"You are beside yourself. I do not notice your insults. You are crazy." The stretcher-bearers came in.
They went out.
"I will shoot the poor fellow," the artillery officer said. "I am a humane man. I will not let him suffer."
"Shoot him then," said the doctor. "Shoot him. Assume the responsibility. I will make a report. Wounded shot by lieutenant of artillery in first curing post. Shoot him. Go ahead shoot him."
"You are not a human being."
dressing post? Do me the courtesy to answer."
no other officers present.
lieutenant fumbled for his pistol. The doctor skipped quickly behind him, tripped him and, as he fell to the floor, kicked him several times and picked up the pistol in his rubber gloves. The lieutenant sat on the floor holding his good hand to his eyes.
"I'll kill you!" he said. "I'll kill you as soon as I can see."
"I am the boss," said the doctor. "All is forgiven since you know I am the boss. You cannot kill me because I have your pistol. Sergeant! Adjutant! Adjutant!"
"The adjutant is at the cable railway," said the sergeant.
"Wipe out this officer's eyes with alcohol and water. He has got iodine in them. Bring me the basin to wash my hands. I will take this officer next."
"You won't touch me."
Old lady: Is that the end? I thought you said it was like John Greenleaf Whittier's Snow Bound. Madame, I'm wrong again. We aim so high and yet we miss the target.
All, of bullfighting is founded on the bravery of the bull, his simplicity and his lack of experience. There are ways to fight cowardly bulls, experienced bulls and intelligent bulls, but the principle of the bullfight, the ideal bullfight, supposes bravery in the bull and a brain clear of any remembrance of previous work in the ring. A cowardly bull is difficult to fight since he will not charge the picadors more than once if he receives any punishment and so is not slowed down by the chastisement he would receive and the effort he would make and consequently the regular plan of the fight cannot be followed, since the bull comes intact and fast to the last third of the fight where he should come with his tempo slowed. No one can be sure when a cowardly bull will charge. He will go away from the man often rather than toward him, but you cannot count on him always doing so, and all brilliance is impossible unless the matador has the science and valor to get so close to the bull that he makes him confident and works on his instincts against his inclinations and then, when he has gotten him to charge a few times, dominates him and almost hypnotizes him with the muleta.
The cowardly bull upsets the order of the fight because he violates the rule of the three stages a bull must go through in the progress of the encounter between bull and man; the three stages which have formulated the order of the corrida. Each act of the bullfight is both a result of and a remedy for one of the stages the bull is in, and the nearer he is to normal, the less his condition is exaggerated, the more brilliant the bullfight will be.
The three phases of the bull's condition in the fight are called in Spanish, levantado, parado, and aplomado. He is called levantado, or lofty, when he first comes out, carries his head high, charges without fixing any object closely and, in general, tries, confident in his power, to sweep the ring clear of his enemies. It is at this time that the bull is least dangerous to the bullfighter and a fighter may attempt passes with the cape such as kneeling with both knees on the ground, citing the bull with the cape spread wide with his left hand, then as the bull arrives at the cape and lowers his head to hook, swinging the cape with the left hand toward the right without changing the position of the right hand so that the bull which would have passed to the left of the kneeling man follows the swirl the cape makes and passes to the right instead. This pass is called a cambio de rodillas and would be impossible, or suicidal, to attempt when the bull, from the punishment he has received and the increasing accuracy in the aiming of his charging brought about by his progressive disillusion in his power, has passed from levantado to parado.
When the bull is parado he is slowed and at bay. At this time he no longer charges freely and wildly in the general direction of any movement or disturbance; he is disillusioned about his power to destroy or drive out of the ring anything that seems to challenge him and, his initial ardor calmed, he recognizes his enemy, or sees the lure that his enemy presents him instead of his body, and charges that with full aim and intention to kill and destroy. But now he is aiming carefully and charging from a quick start. It is comparable to the change from a cavalry charge where all reliance is placed upon shock or impetus and the general administration of shock, the effect upon the individual being left to chance, to a defensive action of infantry where each individual will fire upon, supposedly, an individual object. It is when the bull is parado, or slowed, and is still in possession of his strength and intentions that he is able to be worked with the greatest brilliance on the part of the bullfighter. A bullfighter may attempt and accomplish suertes, a suerte here being any action attempted by the fighter deliberately rather than those actions he is forced into as a defense or by accident, with a bull that is slowed which are impossible with a bull which is still levantado, since a bull which has not
been cut down by punishment will not pay the necessary attention, being still in full possession of all his force and confidence, or give the importance of interest and sustained attack to the manoeuvre of the bullfighter. It is the difference between playing cards with an individual who, giving no importance to the game and having no sum at stake, gives no attention to the rules and makes the game impossible and one who having learned the rules, through having them forced on him and through losing; and now, having his fortune and life at stake, gives much importance to the game and the rules, finding them forced upon him, and does his best with utmost seriousness. It is up to the bullfighter to make the bull play and to enforce the rules. The bull has no desire to play, only to kill.
Aplomado is the third and last general stage the bull goes through. When he is aplomado he has been made heavy, he is like lead; he has usually lost his wind, and while his strength is still intact, his speed is gone. He no longer carries his head high; he will charge if provoked; but whoever cites him must be closer and closer. For in this state the bull does not want to charge unless he is sure of his objective, since he has obviously been beaten, to himself as well as the spectator, in everything he has attempted up to that time; but he is still supremely dangerous.
It is when he is aplomado that the bull is usually killed; especially in the modern bullfight. The extent of his wearing out, of his heaviness and tiredness, depends upon the amount he has charged, and been punished by, the picadors, the number of times he has followed the capes, the amount his vigor has been lessened by the banderillas and the effect that the matador's work with the muleta has had upon him.
All of these phases have had, for practical end, the regulating of the way he carries his head, the cutting of his speed, and the correcting of whatever tendencies he may have had to hook to one side or the other. If they have been accomplished properly the bull arrives at the final stage of the fight with his great neck muscles fatigued so that he holds his head neither too high nor too low, his speed less than half what it was at the start of the fight, his attention fixed on the object that is presented him, and any tendency to hooking to one side or the other, but especially with his right horn, corrected.
Those are the three main states that the bull goes through in the course of the fight; they are the natural progress of his fatigue if the fatigue has been properly induced. If the bull has not been fought properly he may arrive at the hour of killing uncertain, chopping with his head, unable to be fixed in one spot, purely on the defensive; his offensive spirit, that is so necessary to a good bullfight, uselessly wasted. He is then unwilling to charge and altogether unfit for the bullfighter to perform with brilliantly. He may be ruined in the course of the fight by a picador sinking the point of his pic into a shoulder blade or placing it far back in the centre of the bull's spine, instead of the muscles of his neck, thereby laming him or injuring his spine; he may be ruined by a banderillero nailing the banderillas into a wound made by a picador, driving them in so deep that the shafts stick up straight instead of hanging down the bull's flank with the barbs caught only under the skin as they should be placed; or he may be destroyed for any possibility of brilliant work by the way in which the banderilleros handle him with the capes. If they turn him on himself again and again, twisting his spinal column, straining the tendons and muscles of his legs, sometimes catching the sack of his scrotum between his hind legs, they can destroy his force and much of his bravery, ruining him by quick turns and twists instead of fatiguing him honestly by his own efforts in straight charging. But if the bull is fought properly he will go through the three stages, modified as they will be by his own individual force and temperament, and will arrive slowed but intact at the moment of the last third of the fight when the matador himself should wear him down to the proper degree with the muleta before killing him.
The first reason that the bull must be slowed is so that he may be played properly with the muleta, with the man planning and controlling the passes and increasing their danger by his own volition, that is going on the offensive himself rather than merely being forced to defend himself against the bull, and secondly so that he may be killed properly with the sword. The only way this slowness can be produced in a normal manner, without the loss of bravery and the harm to the bull's muscular structure, caused by the constant, jerking deception of the cape, is by his charging of the horses where he wears himself down by his efforts in attacking an object that it is possible to attain, thus finding that his bravery is rewarded rather than that he is steadily deceived. A bull that has successfully charged the horses and has killed or wounded one or several of his opponents goes on to the rest of the fight believing that his charges lead to something and if he continues to charge, he will get the horn into something again. On such a bull the bullfighter can play to the extent of his artistic ability as an organist can play on a pipe organ that is pumped for him. The pipe organ, and let us say the steam calliope, if the symbols are becoming too delicate, are, I believe, the only musical instruments in which the musician utilizes a force which is already there, simply releasing this force in the directions /?/ chooses rather than applying force in a varying degree himself to produce music. So the pipe organ and the steam calliope are the only musical instruments whose players can be compared to the matador. A bull that does not charge is like an unpumped pipe organ or a steamless calliope and the performance the bullfighter can give with such a bull is only comparable in brilliance and lucidity with that which would be given by an organist who had also to pump his pipe organ or a calliopeist who must at the same time stoke his calliope.
Aside from the normal physical and mental stages the bull goes through in the ring each individual bull changes his mental state all through the fight. The most common, and to me the most interesting, thing that passes in the bull's brain is the development of querencias. A querencia is a place the bull naturally wants to go to in the ring; a preferred locality. That is a natural querencia and such are well known and fixed, but an accidental querencia is more than that. It is a place which develops in the course of the fight where the bull makes his home. It does not usually show at once, but develops in his brain as the fight goes on. In this place he feels that he has his back against the wall and in his querencia he is inestimably more dangerous and almost impossible to kill. If a bullfighter goes in to kill a bull in his querencia rather than to bring him out of it he is almost certain to be gored. The reason for this is that the bull, when he is in querencia, is altogether on the defensive, his horn stroke is a riposte rather than an attack, a counter rather than a lead, and the speed of eye and stroke being equal the riposte will always beat the attack since it sees the attack coming and parries or beats it to the touch. The attacker must lay himself open and the counter is certain to arrive if it is as fast as the attack, since it has the opening before it while the attack must try to create that opening. In boxing Gene Tunney was an example of a counter-puncher; all those boxers who have lasted longest and taken least punishment have been counter-punchers too. The bull, when he is in querencia, counters the sword stroke with his horn when he sees it coming as the boxer counters a lead, and many men have paid with their lives, or with bad wounds, because they did not bring the bull out of his querencia before they went in to kill.
The natural querencias of all bulls are the door of the passageway through which they entered the ring and the wall of the barrera. The first because it is familiar to them; it is the last place they remember; and the second because it gives them something to get their back against so they feel safe from attack in the rear. These are the known querencias and a bullfighter utilizes them in many ways. He knows that a bull, at the conclusion of a pass or a series of passes, will probably have a tendency to make for the natural querencia and in so doing will pay little or no attention to what is in his way.
A bullfighter can, therefore, place a prepared and very statuesque pass as the bull goes by him on the way to his refuge. Such passes can be very brilliant; the man standing firm, his feet together, seemingly giving no importance to the bull's charge, letting the whole bulk of the bull rush by him without making the slightest movement of retreat, the horns sometimes passing only a fraction of an inch from his chest; but to the person who knows bullfighting they are valueless except as tricks. They seem dangerous but they are not, for the bull is really intent on reaching his querencia and the man has only placed himself beside his path. It is the bull that controls the direction, speed and aim, therefore to the real lover of bullfighting it is valueless since in real bullfighting, not circus bullfighting, the man should force the bull to charge as he wants him to; should make him curve rather than go straight, should control his direction, not merely profit by his charges to posture as the bull goes by. The Spaniards say, torear es parar, templar y mandar. That is, in real bullfighting the matador should remain still, should measure the speed of the bull by the movement of his wrists and arms holding the cloth, and should dominate and direct the bull's course. Any other way of fighting, such as making statuesque passes in the direction of the bull's natural voyage, no matter how brilliant, is not true bullfighting, since it is the animal that is dominating, not the man. A bull's accidental querencias that come up in his brain during the fight may be, and most often are, the places where he has had some success; killed a horse, for example. That is the most common querencia of a brave bull, although another very usual one on a hot day is any place on the sand of the ring where it has been dampened and cooled, often the mouth of the underground pipe to which a hose is screwed on during the intermission to be used in laying the dust of the arena; where the sand feels cool under the bull's hooves. The bull too may take up his querencia in a place where a horse has been killed in a previous fight, where he smells the blood; a place where he has tossed a bullfighter, or any part of the ring for no apparent reason at all; simply because he feels at home there. You can see the idea of the querencia establishing itself in his brain during the course of the fight. He will go first tentatively, then with more purpose, and finally, unless the bullfighter has noticed his tendency and deliberately kept him away from his chosen spot, the bull will go to his querencia constantly, will take his place there with his back or his flank to the barrier and will refuse to leave. It is then that the bullfighters sweat the big drop. The bull must be brought out; but he is gone completely on the defensive and will not respond to the cape and will cut at them with his horns, refusing altogether to charge. The only way to get him out is to get so close to him that he is absolutely sure he can get the man, and with short pulling jerks of the cape, or by dropping the cape under his muzzle on the ground and pulling it a little at a time, tempt him a few steps at a time, from his querencia. There is nothing pretty about it, it is only dangerous, and usually, the fifteen minutes allotted the matador for killing the bull are passing steadily, he is getting angrier each minute, the banderilleros working more dangerously and the bull becoming more entrenched. But if the matador, impatient, finally says, "All right, if he wants to die there let him die there," and goes in to kill, that will probably be the last thing he will remember until he comes down out of the air with or without a horn wound. For the bull will watch him as he comes in, will knock up the muleta and sword, and will catch the man every time. When the capes and muleta are powerless to get a bull out of his querencia, sometimes fire banderillas are tried, pushed into his rump over the barrera, to smoulder and then go off in a series of explosions and smell of black powder and burning pasteboard; but I have seen a bull, the explosive banderillas in him, leave his querencia perhaps twenty feet, stimulated by the noise, and then return at once to pay no attention to any further means for dislodging him. In such a case the matador is justified in killing the bull in any way that least exposes the man. He may start at one side of the bull and run in a half circle past his head, stabbing him in passing while a banderillero attracts his attention with the cape
as the man passes, or he may kill him in any other way that, to attempt with a brave bull, would risk his being lynched by the crowd. The thing to do is to kill him quickly, not well, for a bull who knows how to use his horns and who cannot be made to leave his querencia is as dangerous for the man to come within range of as a rattlesnake and as impossible to make a bullfight with. But the man should not have allowed him to make such a firm querencia. He should have started to keep him away, get him out into the ring and away from the back-to-the-wall feeling of security, and take him to other parts of the ring long before he took a definite and final stand in his chosen position. Once, about ten years ago, I saw a bullfight in which all six bulls, one after another, took up firm querencias, refused to leave them, and died in them. It was a corrida of Miura bulls in Pamplona. They were enormous roan-colored bulls, high on their legs, long, with huge shoulders and neck muscles and formidable horns. They were the finest-looking bulls I have ever seen and every one of them went on the defensive from the minute they came into the ring. You could not call them cowardly because they defended their lives seriously, desperately, wisely and ferociously, taking up a querencia soon after they came into the ring and refusing to leave it. The corrida lasted until dark, and there was not one graceful or artistic moment, it was an afternoon and early evening of bulls defending themselves against man and man trying to butcher bulls under extreme danger and difficulty. It was about as brilliant an action as the battle of Passchendaele; with apologies for comparing a commercial spectacle with a battle. There were present, for the first time at bullfights, some people to whom I had spoken of the brilliance, the art, the and so forth of bullfighting at great length. I had held forth a long time, stimulated to eloquence by two or three absinthes at the Café Kutz, and before they went had them all pretty eager to see a bullfight and especially this bullfight. None of them spoke to me after the fight and two, including one on whom I had hoped to make a good impression, were quite ill. I enjoyed the fight very much myself for I learned more about the mentality of the non-cowardly bull that still will not charge, a rare thing in bullfights, than I might have learned in a season, but the next time I see such a fight I hope that I go alone. I also hope that I am not fond of, nor a friend of, any of the bullfighters involved.
Aside from the destructive changes in his natural progress of fatigue that may be produced in the bull by an abuse of cape work, by the faulty placing of the banderillas and by the unskillful or deliberate damaging of his spine or shoulder blades by a misplaced pic, the bull may be rendered unfit for the rest of the fight by deliberate misuse of the pic by the picador acting under his matador's orders. There are three main ways to harm a bull and destroy his strength. To over-cape him, to try and bleed him with the pic by opening a tearing gash, and to try to injure him by driving the pic too far back so that it hits the spine, or too far to one side so that it hits the top of the shoulder blade. All of these means of destroying bulls are attempted deliberately by the peones under the matadors' orders on all bulls of which the matadors are afraid. They may be afraid of the bull because he is too big, too fast or too strong and, if they have this fear, they order the picadors and the banderilleros to bear down on him. Often now, the order is unnecessary and the picadors, as a matter of course, bear down on them all unless the matador, feeling confident with the bull, and wishing to preserve him intact so he may work with him with the maximum brilliance and credit to himself, says to his aids, "Take care of this bull for me. Don't waste him." But often the picadors and banderilleros understand before a fight that they are to do everything in their power to destroy the bulls and are to disregard any contrary orders given by the matador in the ring, these orders, usually very vehement and accompanied by curses, are only for the benefit of the spectators.
But aside from the deliberate damage that may be done to a bull physically, making him unfit for a brilliant fight, with the only end of delivering him to the matador as far on the way to death as
possible, incalculable damage may be done to a bull mentally by unskillful work by the banderilleros. When they face the bull with the banderillas, their duty is to get the shafts planted as quickly as possible, for all the delay they may make in unsuccessful attempts, unsuccessful eighty times out of a hundred through cowardice, is upsetting the bull, making him nervous and uncertain, breaking the rhythm of the fight and losing, through giving the bull experience in chasing an unarmed, unmounted man, the advantage of his carefully preserved lack of experience in the past.
The man who usually fails in this way in putting in the banderillas is almost always between forty and fifty. He is kept in the cuadrilla as the confidential banderillero of the matador. He is there for his knowledge of bulls, his probity, his wise old head. He represents the matador at the sorting of the bulls, the making up of the lots and is his confidential adviser on all technical things. But because he is past forty his legs have usually gone back on him, he has no confidence in them as a means of saving himself if the bull goes after him, and so, when it is his turn to place a pair of banderillas if the bull is difficult, the old banderillero becomes of such an exaggerated prudence that it is indistinguishable from cowardice. In his faulty execution with the sticks he destroys the effect of his skillful and wise art with the cape, and bullfighting would gain much if these wise, old, fatherly, but spavined relics were not permitted to place banderillas but were only carried in the cuadrilla for their opportune capes and their mental equipment.
Placing the banderillas is the part of bullfighting that demands the most physical equipment in a man. One pair or two pairs may be placed by a man who cannot even run across the ring if he has some one else to prepare the bull for him and if he waits for the bull to come to him. But to place them consistently, seeking out the bull, preparing him and then nailing in the shafts properly, demands good legs and good physical condition. On the other hand a man may be a matador and not place the banderillas, but be able to fight the bull properly with cape and muleta and kill him moderately well even with his legs so crippled and twisted with horn wounds that he could not run across the ring and he himself, perhaps, in the last stages of tuberculosis. For a matador should never run except when he is placing the banderillas, he should be able to make the bull do all the work, even to the driving in of the sword. When Gallo was over forty years of age some one asked him what he did for exercise and he said he smoked Havana cigars.
"What do I want with exercise, hombre? What do I want with strength? The bull takes plenty of exercise, the bull has plenty of strength! I have now forty years, but every year the bulls are four and a half going on five."
He was a great bullfighter and the first one to admit fear. Until Gallo's time it was thought utterly shameful to admit to being afraid, but when Gallo was afraid he dropped muleta and sword and jumped over the fence head first. A matador is never supposed to run, but Gallo was liable to run if the bull looked at him in a peculiarly knowing way. He was the inventor of refusing to kill the bull if the bull looked at him in a certain way, and when they locked him up in jail he said that it was better that way, "all of us artists have bad days. They will forgive me my first good day."
He gave more farewell performances than Patti and now, going on toward fifty, he is still giving them. His first formal permanent farewell he gave in Sevilla. He was greatly moved and when the time came to dedicate the last bull he was to kill in his life as a bullfighter he decided to dedicate to his old friend Señor Fulano. He took off his hat and, with his brown bald head shining, said, "To thee, Fulano, friend of my childhood, protector of my early career, prince of aficionados, I toast this last bull of my life as a bullfighter." But as he finished he saw the face of another old friend, a composer, and going along the barrier until he was opposite him he looked up, his eyes moist, and said, "To thee, oh excellent friend, thou who art one of the glories in the heaven of Spanish music, I
dedicate this, the last bull I shall ever kill in my life as a torero." But as he turned away he saw Algabeno, the father, one of the best killers who ever came out of Andalucía, sitting a little way along the barrera and stopping so he faced him he said, "To thee, old comrade, who always followed the sword in with thy heart, to thee the best killer of bulls that I have ever known I dedicate this, the ultimate bull of my bullfighting life and watch if my work shall not be worthy of thee." He turned impressively and walked toward the bull which had been standing quite still looking at him, looked carefully at the bull, and then turned to his brother, Joselito: "Kill him for me, José. Take him for me. I don't like the way he looks at me."
On this, the first and greatest of his farewell performances, the last bull killed by him in his life as a bullfighter was killed by his brother Joselito.
The last time I saw him was in Valencia before he left Spain for South America. He looked like an old, very old, butterfly. He had more grace, more looks and was finer looking at forty-three than any other bullfighter that I have ever seen of any age. His were not the sort of looks that photograph. El Gallo never looked handsome in a picture. It was not the grace of youth; it was something that does endure, and as you watched him with the big gray Concha y Sierra bull, that he played as delicately as a spinet, you knew that if a bull should ever gore and kill him, and you should see it, you would know better than to go to any more bullfights. Joselito should die to prove that no one is safe in the ring and because he was getting fat. Belmonte should die because he deals in tragedy and has only himself to blame. The novilleros you see killed are all victims of economics, and your best friends in the profession die of occupational disorders that are quite understandable and logical, but for Rafael El Gallo to be killed in the bull ring would not be irony, nor tragedy, since there would be no dignity; El Gallo would be too frightened for that; he never admitted the idea of death and he would not even go in to look at Joselito in the chapel after he was killed; killing El Gallo would be bad taste and prove the bullfight was wrong, not morally, but aesthetically. El Gallo did something to the bullfight as he did something to all of us who admired him; he corrupted it perhaps, but not as much as Guerrita did; certainly he is the grandfather of the modern style as Belmonte is its father. He was not utterly without honor as Cagancho is, he was only lacking in courage and a little simple minded; but what a great fighter he was and what security he had, really; his divings over the barrera were fits of panic after the danger was over, never necessities. El Gallo, in a panic, was still closer to the bull than most fighters when they were showing their tragic domination, and the grace and excellence of his work were as delicate as that lovely early Mexican feather work that is preserved at El Escorial. Do you know the sin it would be to ruffle the arrangement of the feathers on a hawk's neck if they could never be replaced as they were? Well, that would be the sin it would be to kill El Gallo.
Find 2 Examples In Each Chapter For Ethos And Logos And Explain In 75 Words For Each Example, Why They Represent These Rhetorical Devices?
||Found Theater Space|
1. how does do Waal make his case that animals may be smarter than we typically assume? Give some of his examples.
2. How do you perceive animals and animal rights/liberation? Do you think they deserve protection under the law? Why/why not? Have you ever had an animal friend that you were close to--is so what was your experience like? Why do you think non-human animals lack equal rights to humans currently in the U.S.?
PLEASE ANSWER THIS QUESTIONS FROM THE READING I AM ATTACHING IN BOTTOM DO NOT USE ANY ANTHER SOURCES ONLY READING I PROVIDED. THANK YOU AND PLEASE NO PLAGIARISM.
|how does do Waal make his case|
IMPORTANCE OF ENG 101
ENG 101 is a basic introductory course for all most all student joining college. Its mandate is to ensure that students understand the concept of reading, writing and creative thinking. This is very important to the student’s college life as it plays a big role in the general success of their lives not only in school but also later in the job market. It is very important for students to take ENG 101 due to the following reasons stated below.
First, ENG101 is a perquisite course. It will be very difficult for students to take any course in college without having to take ENG101. If one fails to take this course it may result in failure to graduate at the end of the college time because it is a requirement by most if not all colleges for their students to take ENG101 as an introductory course at the beginning of the college time. That is between first and second year of college life. So for the curriculum to be considered complete one has to take this course and successfully graduate from college.
Secondly, it very important for students to take ENG 101 because all courses are delivered in English. Whether a student is pursuing nursing or engineering all units within that specific program will be offered in English. So it is very important for students to take ENG 101 in order for them to be proficient in English. It will also build their vocabulary and understanding of certain terms which will go a long way in enhancing their course work in college.
Thirdly, English is an international common language. This makes English the most widely spoken language in the whole world. Thus for students to take ENG 101 it will boost their understanding of English and will enable them to be able to communicate well both in written and spoken English. College life is meant to prepare students for the job market and once the students understand English well they will be fit for job at any English speaking place in the world.
Fourthly, ENG101 equips learners with knowledge of process and conventions. Through the course the learners are able to learn about different styles of writing their benefits and disadvantages and also they learn about writing conventions this include citations and referencing styles. This are very important skills in writing academic papers. This is because they help learners appreciate and acknowledge work written by other writers. This is good practice in the academic world and it helps reduce plagiarism in a learners work and provides motivation to other writers as they feel that their work is appreciated.
Fifthly, it encourages critical thinking, reading and writing. Through ENG 101students work with a wide range of writings which are not necessarily in their field of student. For example, they could be reading a novel about geology, engineering and other practices which are not necessarily in their field of study. How does this impact they students? Once the students encounter such reading it stretches their intellectual capability to think. It provides some kind of intellectual challenges that students are supposed to respond to hence they have to think clearly and critically through them. The ability to think critically and make rational judgement about subjects gives the students a good foundation for making correct decisions after thinking through them in their study life and also work environment.
Lastly, ENG101 equips students with effective communication skills. This ranges from spoken to written English. A student who has taken English will have confidence during oral class presentations and will also deliver good written down presentations. This is a key factor in ensuring a student performs and scores very well in all assignments in all courses. Communication skill is not only important in school environment only. Once the student completes college and successfully transforms into work environment the knowledge will also be very essential. Knowing how to communicate with your boss and other senior officials and other staff in the same rank is very important. Personal engagement with customers and clients is what differentiates the good employee and a bad one. Most managers will be keen to watch closely how one relates with other staff in the organization and also how the handle clients. Presentation of facts is a key thing in organizations and people who don’t have effective communication skills will experience a lot of difficulties in doing the same. This makes ENG 101 very important to students’ life.
In conclusion, the importance of ENG 101 are endless ranging from critical thinking, communication, it being a prerequisite and thus making it a very important course in the life a student. This because it will not only impact his college life but also the life in the market, job and outside world.
|an essay for the third copy|
out of the six people two of them were sethe and Baby Suggs give their body to live
|ESSAY BELOVED PDF|
|15303||“Critical Reading” Essay (Evaluation) Rubric|
Task 1: Project Proposal
One Page Proposal should include the following elements:
Following is a list of project topics:
3D Printer, UAV, Robots, Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology, Block chain, Bitcoin, Cloud Computing, Big Data Technology, etc.
Technology in Society:
Technology and finance, Technology and food safety, Technology and agriculture, Technology and politics, Technology and government, Technology and education, etc.
Technology in History:
Technology Diffusion in Japan, Technology Diffusion in China, Technology Diffusion in India
Technology Diffusion in Saudi Arabia, Technology Diffusion in Israel,
Technology Diffusion in Africa, etc.
Theories and Philosophy:
Technology Determinism and Artificial Intelligence, Constructivism and Big Data, Max Weber and C.S. Lewis, Adam Smith and Karl Marx, Scripture Perspective of Technology Advancement, etc.
Task 2 – Project Report
For report writing, please use APA format (Max 10 pages Time New Roman font 12, 1 1/2 space including front matters, body and back end matters).
Please use the following outline for the individual report:
Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/)
The Advancements of Metal Processing in Today’s Industry
This report was a look into how the metal process has changed. The metal processing industry started as something small. Many people didn’t know what was happening. Stone tools where the only things available that where hard enough to cut other stones. The discovery of making metal liquid or in to a workable slab improved everything. The new things that were being made out of metal where better. Tools where stronger. Weapons where more effective. Jewelry became the thing to have if you were rich. This is because the first things made of steel and other metals that where expensive. The products where being made by blacksmiths. The technology that we have developed for it could do the same work at a much more efficient way. Steel is now one of the biggest industries. Many new things will continue to be developed to advance metal processing.
The Advancements of Metal Processing in Today’s Industry
Metal processing has come a long way since it started. The first know metal processing was done in about 5000 B.C (Cramb). This is when they believe copper was being made into sheets of workable metal. This also led to other types of metal processing like metal casting. Metal casting is when molten metal gets poured in to a mold to make the shape of the mold. The molds are made out of wood then compressed with sand. The mold gets pulled apart and the wood pieces get taken off. The shape is left over. Then is put back together and that’s when the metal is poured into. The first medal casting was a cooper frog that scientist believe it dates to 3200 B.C and casted in Mesopotamia (MetalTechnologies.com). One of the best technologies to come out of metal processing has been the discovery of Iron and steel. Steel is iron with 1% of carbon. Iron was first discovered in 2000 B.C (MetalTechnologies.com). Technology grew and so did metal processing.
The use of metals in everyday life made things easier. The persons that where using them didn’t have to rely on rocks, stone tools or animal parts. One of the parts where metal processing was used was in weapon making. Stone weapons was a push factor for better metal weapons. The metal used could be made into spears, armor and cannons.
The creation of cannons happen because of two things. In 645 B.C. the first sand molding where created in china (MetalTechnologies.com). Then in 233 B.C. Cast iron plowshares where developed in China. These two discoveries help create the cannon. The cannon can be categorize as a pull factor. Many early battles were fought using a cannon. We still use it today it’s just more advance. The first cannons provided a major advantage because they were unstoppable. In 1324 English fortress of La Réole in Gascony fell after a month's bombardment by cannon (themcs.org). The cannon was made possible because of the metal casting. They went from being made of bamboo to being made of metal.
Another push factor was stone tools. Stone tools where the first tools to be used by mankind. They were used to kill, eat and build things. The development of metal tools made things easier and changed many societies. The stone tools where replaced by copper.
When copper tools where introduced it changed things. The first things that copper tools did was slow the production of stone tools (Bailly). This happened in Europe at around 3500 B.C and 2000 B.C (Bailly). The tools where being made out of steel, cooper, and iron. These metals where being made in blacksmith shops all around Europe an Egypt. The technology of metal tools was being diffused in a wave pattern through Europe (Bailly). Although the steel and copper tools where very efficient they didn’t completely replace stone tools (Bailly). They didn’t replace them in the places where copper tools where hard to come by. Tree cutters still relied in there stone axes. The copper tools where commonly used in towns, as time went by and people expanded there knowledge of making tools. Some of the tools eventually made it out of Europe and some into Europe. Egypt is also known for developing steel tools. This is evident when many of the pyramids and statues in Egypt where made with copper and steel chisels. They is also evident in status that where carved out of marble with metal tools in Greece. The tombs of many people have been found with necklaces and other jewelry (Bailly). These tools made possible because of metal working and combining metals to achieve the right hardness. The first copper tools weren’t hard and broke easily (Bailly). This made the search for better quality metals.
There were many push and pull factors as metal processing evolved. The first thing that began to change was the way metal was being made. Once the metal was made people found many uses for it. The push factor for metal processing where the need of better tools and better weapons. The pull factors for metal processing where harder tools, the weapons where effective and the tools where more efficient. Many things changed because of this new technologies. Metal processing is changing still today. Many different things are being created advance metal processing there is still many things that use metal. Like welding, cutting, forging and fabricating things for everyday life.
The diffusion of metal processing since it’s begin has allowed us to change the word. The way we use everyday things from automobiles to the houses we live in. The technology has spread all around the world. Today we use it in many applications. We have the developed new ways to mold metal, to connect it and to make it stronger.
The beging of metal processing can be traced back to many years ago. The earliest of people where melting copper and other metals to make jewelry. Then they realized they could make tools. The tools where later distributed to other countries. The first of the metal processing technologies was found in the in the Egypt. The table above shows what was being creating in Egypt. Egypt was where some of the technologies where born. Later on the technologies where transported outside of Egypt. Egyptians used stone tolls to build some of their most famous buildings.
Another technology that came out of the Iron Age was steel. Steel originated about 4000 years ago (Bell, metals.about.com). This new type of metal replaced what was the most common metal used which was Bronze (Bell, metals.about.com). The new technology quickly began to replace the bronze tools and weapons. Steel is made of iron ore which gets heated in a furnace. The furnace releases the impurities from the iron ore. Carbon then gets added to make it more durable (Keen Ovens).The iron ore is derived from the ground. This is what made steel so important in the early stages of its production. Many of the things that were being made from steel where for only the richest. They were most likely gifts given to each other in special occasions (The Steel Federation,A.S.). These gift where made by craftsman and made then in low volumes. Not all places had iron ores. When it was available many things began to be produced. The Great Moravian Empire started to make tools for wood working, hoes, spades, scythes, sickles and other products (The Steel Federation,A.S.). There was about a total of 100 iron products (The Steel Federation,A.S.). The production of iron was still very expensive and took a long time. This would remain the same for a long time. Eventually other continents began to make their own steel and iron. The first of the mass producers where England and Europe (The Steel Federation,A.S.). These new rate of producing things from iron started in the middle 19th century. This was possible because of the invention of crucible steel (The Steel Federation,A.S.). The technology allowed for the making of hard metals without the use of forging rods and plates. In 1855 a patent for refining pig iron in the crucible was stablished (The Steel Federation,A.S.).
The invention of steel is something many take for granted. Many things today are made out of steel. Many buildings are made out of steel. It has become the world most recycle and produced metal. The steel industry has grown a lot from when it started. The places you will find still today is in construction, transport, energy, packaging and appliances (Bell, metals.about.com). The number one of user of steel is construction. The use of steel makes for strong buildings at a low-price (Bell, metals.about.com). The most significant user of steel in transportation was in railroads. This is what expanded growth in many countries at the end of the 20th century (Bell, metals.about.com). 50% of the weight of a modern car is because of the steel. Many things use steels. The process of recycling will make it that we will continue to use it for a long time.
The future of metal processing is still unknown. One thing is for sure it won’t stop. Many new technologies are being made to work with metal at a much efficient way. Steel will still continue to be the number one recycled metal. Since the start of making metal and to now the world has evolved with it. Imagine if the process of working with metal had not been discovered. Many things would not have been built or they would have been only constructed out of cement. The thing that I learned is that many people are still not sure when the metal process started. They just say about 3000B.C. to 5000B.C. hopefully will be exact one day.
The new technologies that are been created will help us work with metal much better. At the beginning of the metal processing, products where very expensive (Bell, metals.about.com). The products that where being made where made out of bronze which was not that great for making tools. Then steel was created. Steel is iron mixed with carbon to make a strong metal. Other metals were also being used around the same time. Steel was the one that was recognized as a metal witch could be used in a lot of applications. The modern steel industry would of have not been possible if it wasn’t for Henry Bessemer in 1856 (Bell, metals.about.com). The method devolved used oxygen to lower the amount of carbon. Too much carbon and the metal doesn’t melt (Bell, metals.about.com). The steel industry was one of the most used and diffused technology from metal processing.
I think that metal process as an industry will grow. There are many things that could be built with steel. The California High Speed Rail that will be built in California is going to need a lot of steel to make its rails run from San Francisco to Los Angeles. This train is also going to go into other cities like Sacramento. The train is going to need everything the metal process has. The parts for the train is going to need CNC machines to make. The big part are going to need cutters like plasma and hydro cutters. The industry will continue to use steel and other metals to progress the world.
The metal industry has come a long way. The world we live in could not have been possible for some of the technologies that metal processing has produced. I think it will continue to grow but it will eventually even out in the S-curve.
Bailly, Maxence. "Stone Tools and Copper Tools in Late Neolithic Western Europe: what Relationships, what Substitution? From Common Sennse to Research Agenda." n.d. www.academia.edu. Article. 26 April 2015.
Bell, Terence. "metals.about.com." n.d. Steel History. Article. 28 April 2015.
—. Metals.about.com. n.d. Document. 28 April 2015.
Cramb, Alan W. "A Short History of Metals." n.d. neon.memes.cmu.edu. Article. 25 April 2015.
Keen Ovens. "www.keenovens.com." n.d. www.keenovens.com/articles/steel-furnance.htm. Document. 28 April 2015.
MetalTechnologies.com. "History of Metal Casting A Brief Timeline." Informative. n.d. Article.
The Steel Federation,A.S. www.hz.cz/en/history-of-steelmaking. n.d. Document. 28 April 2015.
themcs.org. "The Medieval Combat Society Early Medieval Cannon." n.d. www.themcs.org/weaponry/cannon/cannon. Documnet. 25 April 2015.
www.reshafim.org.il. www.reshafim.org.il. September 2012. Report. 28 April 2015.
Development Stage of Computer Numerically Controlled Machinery
Table of contents
List of Illustrations....................................................................................................pg. 3
What CNC Is............................................................................................................pg. 6
Historical Background of CNC................................................................................pg. 7
Push and Pull Forces Throughout the Development of CNC.................................pg. 10
Technological Recourses .......................................................................................pg. 11
References.................................................................................................. ............pg. 12
List of Illustrations
Illustration 1: X,Y,Z axis........................................................................................pg. 6
Illustration 2: Music Box Cam...............................................................................pg. 7
Illustration 3: Blanchard Lathe...............................................................................pg. 8
Illustration 4: Punched Tape...................................................................................pg. 9
Illustration 5: CNC Machines.................................................................................pg. 9
Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machinery is a technology that allows for a mass production of high quality parts through the use of a computer controlling servo motors which orientate specific tooling in order to create the part. The development of CNC technology relies on a number of inventors throughout history dating back to the 1700's who saw a need for a new technology and then simply used already existing technology to fulfill that need. The main forces behind the development of CNC technology were primarily the huge demand of weapons and high quality air craft parts from the United States military, along with individuals who saw this demand and recognized the need for a technology that substantially increased the rate of production for these weapons and parts. These individuals were able to take existing technologies and create a new technology to fulfill these demands. This process eventually led to CNC technology which was nothing more than the merger of the already existing IBM computer with the already existing servo controlled NC machinery. This technology today has been refined to the point where consumers are able to have their own personal table top CNC mills in their home garages.
The purpose of this document is to fulfill one subtopic of a major topic that was split among our group of three people.
Our group decided to do our report on CNC technology and how it has effected society. After selecting this topic our group then divided it into subtopics for each group member to cover. I was assigned the development stage of CNC technology so that is the subtopic the this document covers.
This document covers the development stage or stage one of the S-curve of CNC technology. This includes; the push and pull forces behind the development of the technology in terms of historical background.
This document covers the development of CNC technology by utilizing the following five subsections:
· What CNC is
· Historical Background of CNC
· Push and Pull Forces Throughout the Development of CNC
· Technological Resources
The five subsections above are discussed throughout the document in the order of the bulleted list above.
What CNC Is
CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled operations. It is the ability to operate machinery by way of computer. Simply put, it is the merger of the common types of machinery, such as lathes and milling machines, with computers. It is the computer which operates servo motors which orientate the tooling along an X,Y,Z axis.(Ryan, 2009) Non CNC machinery requires manual operation to orientate the tooling. The use of computers to operate the machines allows for a much higher quality with much tighter tolerances. For example, when you need to perform a machining process that involves the change of only one axis at a time it is very easy to accomplish by hand. Now consider an operation such as milling a sphere out of a cube. This process would involve simultaneous changes in multiple axis. This would be near impossible by hand and the CNC process would be the optimal solution. The Illustration below depicts the X,Y,Z axis.
Illustration 1: X,Y,Z axis
Historical Background of CNC
The origins of CNC machinery actually dates back to 1770 and the creation of musical boxes. The father of the music box is Louis Favre who was a Swiss inventor from Geneva. The early music boxes would utilize a small cylinder with pins which would spin and activate the musical machine as depicted below. A cylinder with pegs is basically a cam. In order to change songs you would need to physically change the pin layout on the cylinder which typically meant changing cylinders. (Pfirrmann, 2001-2014)
Illustration 2: Music Box Cam
In 1818 Thomas Blanchard utilizing the cam design found in music boxes, used that design to operate machining equipment used to make gun barrels. Again, in order to change the operation of the machining, one would need to change the cam layout. However just as the music box could play the same song over and over repeatedly without variation, so could Blanchard's first replicating machine in regards to musket barrels. Immediately after designing his first cam controlled cutter, Blanchard created what is called the "Blanchard lathe" which is actually not a lathe but is a shaper. It basically used an exact model as a template to control the X,Y,Z axis which it was then able to reproduce multiple exact quantities.(Springfield Armory) An 1822 Blanchard stock making replicating lathe is illustrated on the top of the next page in illustration 3.
Illustration 3: Blanchard Lathe
Manufacturing continued using cam operated or template operated machinery until the 1940's when John T. Parsons started the second industrial revolution. This was the period of time when IBM made a major thrust into business computing. IBM was the world's leader in tabulating equipment. John T. Parsons along with Sikorsky Aircraft utilized an IBM tabulator to tabulate the X,Y axis with 200 points instead of the previous 17 points that Sikorsky was originally using. With print out in hand, a machine operator could call out the X,Y axis coordinates to the machine operators who would actually be turning the dials and levers. Seeing how this approach worked so good, in 1948 Parsons took the next giant step with the idea of having the dials and levers operated by servo motors controlled by punched tape rather than by human operators. Punched tape was the main data storage used by IBM at the time. It was literally a long piece of tape with typically five or eight holes punched through the tape. You can kind of imagine this format as Morse code or brail. Illustration 4 depicts both a five-hole and an eight-hole tape.
Illustration 4: Punched Tape
Having pioneered the manufacturing process of numerically controlled (NC) machinery, Parsons teamed with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to refine the process. Where Parsons original process used a series of cutting points, the process at MIT was refined so that the cutting points were refined to cutting lines which allowed for a smoother operation.(Lee, 2013-2015)
In the late 1950's numerical control (NC) was further developed into computer numerical control (CNC). CNC is basically the mating of the computer directly with the machine itself. The development of the computer along with the development of control servos allowed for greater precision and ease of operation. Computer language was being specialized for these operations which became known as computer aided design (CAD). In addition to computer automated machinery (CAM). It is now possible for a machine operator to easily make changes to the cutting operation by making an easy programming change via a directly linked computer which now a days may be a lap top.(CNC Cookbook) The picture below depicts a 1959 CNC machine. The picture to the below right depicts a currently available personal use desk top CNC mill available from littlemachineshop.com.
Illustration 5: CNC Machines
Push and Pull Forces Throughout the Development of CNC
While the original theory of the CNC history dates back to 1770's and the creation of the music boxes and cuckoo clocks, the first real production forces started in 1818. Thomas Blanchard seeing the Springfield Armory producing thousands of gun barrels for the United States military recognized the need to reduce the machining time needed to produce each gun barrel. Up until this time all milling had been performed by hand operation of the machinery. The Springfield Armory welcomed Thomas Blanchard's new technology because it greatly reduced their production costs and time. The same push-pull forces continued with Thomas Blanchard's creation of the Blanchard lathe. The United States military has always been the major purchaser of national defense weapons. The defense contractors who supply these weapons do so in mass quantities which leads for a direct need of an efficient manufacturing process to both keep the cost down and the production speed high. Both cost and speed can be critical to the military. For example, if you can produce five guns for the cost of one gun of equal or better craftsmanship, you obviously would pick the five. In war time speed becomes critical. The ability to mass produce rapidly is critical. While additional soldiers are trained, they need to be out fitted with their guns. As planes are shot down and tanks destroyed in the fields, they too must be replaced rapidly. This overwhelming demand provides the incentive for inventors to supply new innovations in the manufacturing process. In the 1940's the US Air force increased its demand for cost efficient and rapidly produced machined parts. John T. Parsons met that need with the first numerically controlled machinery. While the original needs for supply and demand where primarily based upon the militaries need, those needs have trickled down. First to consumer goods whose manufacturing need is more based upon cost rather than speed as it is in war time. Manufacturing is based on Darwinism. The strong will survive. Manufactures who make the largest profit will continue to survive. Just as the demand trickled down from the military to the large manufactures, that demand has now trickled down to the personal consumer. Personal consumers are now able to purchase their own bench top CNC milling machines for there personal use.
Through the development of today's CNC machines, the technological advances have been primarily the adaption of existing technology to a manufacturing use. In 1818 Thomas Blanchard utilized the cam design which dated back to the 1700's to create his Blanchard lathe. In the 1940's John T. Parsons combined the use of an IBM punch tape to servo operated machinery. As computers continued to develop, as well as machinery controlling devices, so came the merger of the two for the development of the CNC machinery.
The development of CNC technology has push and pull forces that brought on its development along with an interesting historical background that dates back all the way to the 1700's. I found it to be very interesting that the origins of CNC machinery dates all the way back to 1770 and the creation of the musical box. As I would have guessed the United States military generated a pulling force on the technology through a high demand for weapons and aircraft parts. This high demand created a need for mass production which brought on CNC technology through key people such as Thomas Blanchard recognizing the need and creating a new technology to meet the demand. The invention of the new machining technologies by the key individuals generated a push force on CNC technology. I also found it interesting that each step of the development of CNC technology utilized technologies that had already existed and either used them for a new purpose or simply just combined two already existing technologies in to one such as the computer and the machining tools. As the origins of CNC dates back to the 1700's it is still being used today and is still being refined and new processes are utilizing its technology.
CNC Cookbook, Retrieved from
Lee, J., (2013-2015). John T. Parsons. Computer pioneers, Retrieved from
Pfirrmann, J., (2001-2014). The Age of the Music Box. The Passaic County Historical Society, volume 1969 number 2. Retrieved from
Ryan, V., (2009). What Does CNC Mean. Retrieved from
Springfield Armory. Springfield Armory National Historic Site & National Historic Landmark, Retrieved from
|One Page Proposal should include the following elements:|
1. Generation Z: Making a Difference Their Way | Corey Seemiller | TEDxDayton https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cN0hyudK7nE
2. What do we know about the generation after millennials? | Jason Dorsey | TEDxHouston
1. What are the lessons we learn from Jason talking every day to his 4-year-old daughter?
2. How was Jason's daughter potty trained?
3. What are the three most important trends that will shape the behavior of the post Millennial generation?
4. How is the Millennial generation "splitting"?
5. What surprised you/did you find interesting in either ted talk? Pick at least two things ("nothing" is a terrible answer and will be graded accordingly)
|Watch these videos to be able to answer the questions below|
In this assignment, you will submit a 2000 word paper covering two major section. The first is an assessment of the weaknesses in your leadership (surrounding the areas we studied in this course), and second a response to your weaknesses that pre-plans how you will address these leadership weaknesses moving forward.
Part 1: Leadership Assessment
In the first section of your final paper, you will identify and assess the weaknesses in your leadership (as they pertain to the theology of leaders, spiritual disciplines of leaders, family life of leaders, and vocational life of leaders). You may focus on one or several of these domains of leadership. This section should be between 1000-1250 words in length.
Part 2: Leadership Response
In your leadership response, I want to see a specific plan regarding how you are going to address the leadership weaknesses you have just identified in the preceeding section. This section should be between 750-1000 words.
|Leadership Assessment & Response Instructions|
Module/Week 8: This journal must be completed in 2 parts. First, reflect on the mission of biblical leadership, and consider your role in this mission—how are you going to fulfill God’s calling on your life with regards to this mission? Second, in a more generic sense, what have you learned about the life of leaders over the past 8 weeks? How will this directly impact your life and your leadership
|This journal must be completed in 2 parts|
· to begin to consider an issue affecting your intended professional field,
· to summarize an article clearly, completely and concisely, and
· to use these summaries in your final report.
Over the course of the semester you will be required to locate eight articles about an issue (of your choice) affecting your professional field. Each article needs to be at least 1000 - 1500 words long, but longer articles are fine. Articles can come from any credible source, e.g. the surface web or from databases accessed through the CSUN library, as long as they are current (generally no earlier than 2010). Articles should examine the issue from a variety of perspectives.
Although a summary is between 10 to 15 % of the length of the original source, your summaries should be one to two paragraphs.
Each summary should include a Works Cited/Reference (depending upon your field of study).
Adopted from Professor Amber Norwood
In her article “Facebook: Challenges and Opportunities for Business Communication Students,” Christina Decarie, a professor of business communication, discusses the benefits and drawbacks of social networking. She argues that, if used correctly, online social networking can confer a major advantage to students who are looking to promote themselves favorably to a large number of people. Decarie mentions that the most popular social networking site is Facebook, which hosts a diverse set of users (approximately 400 million) of all ages and backgrounds, from all over the world. Decarie warns that although the new user must learn proper literacy and self-presentation skills before reaping the site’s full benefits, Facebook nonetheless presents endless networking opportunities by essentially eliminating geographical barriers. Thus, Decarie asserts it would be advantageous to learn and utilize effective communication skills to promote oneself effectively and to enhance one’s network. Decarie suggests that students make the most out of social networking by building relationships (both personal and business-related), and by using those relationships to create new opportunities. However, Decarie also notes that one must always take care, as even the smallest “blunder” has the potential to ruin a long-lasting relationship, or jeopardize a business prospect. According to Decarie, because Facebook is so popular in the young adult community and so well situated to help individuals build networks, college students are now seeing the benefits of learning effective business communication skills more than ever before. Decarie urges teachers to show their students effective self-promotion strategies that can be used in online social networking sites such as Facebook.
Decarie, C. (2010). Facebook: Challenges and opportunities for business communication students. Business Communication Quarterly, 73, 449-452.
Choose one of the prompts below and develop a two-page (400-500 word) response that links thematically and updates one of the classics we’ve read. This is an informal writing assignment, so feel free to get creative and have fun with this assignment, or to get personal and expressive. You are welcome to use first person (I and we) and to write this in any form you choose — poem, short short, letter to the editor, journal entry, blog post, newspaper article, or even a series of Facebook status or Twitter updates — as long as your writing meets the minimum word count. Feel free to add pictures if you'd like, and you can use whatever font you want (as long as I can read it!).
|Choose one of the prompts below|
Requirements: 3-4 pages in MLA format, use 5-6 in-text citations and 2-3 block quotations. You do not have to use any outside resources (unless you want to), but you still need a Works Cited page. Highlight your thesis!
One theme is family and how this social institution inspires courage, faith, and success.
The author, Dr. Vinh Chung, relates that one of the most influential women in his life was Grandmother Chung, his father's mother. Chung describes his grandmother as a formidable presence. She was almost six feet in height, which meant that she towered over most Asian men and their "diminutive wives." She possessed such "fearless confidence" that she intimidated many who came into her presence.
Grandmother Chung was widowed in 1949, at one of the worst moments in Vietnamese history, when the French and the Japanese had their eyes on the defenseless Asian nation. Dr. Vinh relates that his grandmother had six children to raise on her own after her husband's untimely death at the age of 48.
Because she had little education, the only options open to Grandmother Chung were either servitude or prostitution. Dr. Vinh relates that his grandmother rejected both options and instead founded her own rice milling business. She began by collecting handfuls of rice to mill by hand. The money she made from her first efforts allowed her to purchase more quantities of raw rice to process for sale.
Grandmother Chung built her million dollar rice-milling empire with little more than her resolve and good faith in her efforts. With "no financial resources and little formal schooling," she trained her children to help in the business, and the entire family reaped the results of its industry.
Grandmother Chung's business empire reinforces the importance of family, demonstrating how this social institution inspires faith, courage, and success.
Dr. Vinh notes that his own father, Thanh, soon became the COO (Chief Operating Officer) of the family rice-milling business. Like his mother, Thanh was an exemplary employer; he worked and sweated side by side with the humblest laborer. He knew each employee by name and attended their special family functions. Thanh showed Dr. Vinh the importance of treating employees fairly and humanely. The family's newly established wealth did not prevent Dr. Vinh's elders from treating the poor with compassion.
Hoa Truong was another influential person in Dr. Vinh's life. During his childhood years, Hoa Truong faithfully served Grandmother Chung. The entire family lived in one house. Dr. Vinh relates that his mother's life was made harder by Grandmother Chung's mercurial temper and impossibly high standards.
With the aid of her sister-in-law (who was in the same position as her), Hoa Truong washed the family's laundry by hand, did the food shopping at the market every day, and butchered chickens for dinner. Even after new infants were birthed, Hoa Truong and her sister-in-law were expected to perform the family chores with timely precision.
Dr. Vinh relates that Hoa Truong would have been considered oppressed by western standards, but by Asian standards, she was an exemplary wife and mother:
If you view my mother through Western eyes, you'll see her as a mistreated individual who should have stood up for her rights; but if you view her the way she saw herself, you'll understand that she made an enormous contribution to an affluent and prosperous family, and to Asian eyes, that is the very definition of success.
To Dr. Vinh, family has always been an inspiration. When the Communists overwhelmed South Vietnam, the entire family braved Malaysian soldiers, Thai pirates, and the tempestuous sea to seek freedom.
Dr. Vinh relates that the family arrived in America with nothing more than the clothes on their backs and that none of the family spoke a word of English. However, the famous Chung industry remained intact. Thanh, Dr. Vinh's father, worked 23 years at an air-conditioning factory before deciding to start a restaurant with his wife, Huo Truong.
The couple's courage, faith, and industry were an inspiration to Dr. Vinh and his siblings. He reports that, today, the Chung family holds "twenty-one university degrees, including five master's and five doctorates from institutions such as Harvard, Yale, Georgetown, Stanford, George Mason, Michigan, and Arkansas." Indeed, the theme of family and all that it inspires is apparent throughout Where the Wind Leads.
|Requirements: 3-4 pages in MLA format,|
Description: Writing about your service-learning experiences derives meaning from your service. Reflecting back on your experiences with a critical eye will help connect your coursework and real-life and give you time to evaluate the service efforts within the community where you live.
• Submit as a Word document in Blackboard
• Cover page including:
• Your Name
• Volunteer Site(s) & Addresses
• Number of hours completed
• Site supervisor name(s)
• Typed, double-spaced. 12 point font; minimum 2-3 pages of reflection text (not including the cover page) covering the outlined questions below.
• Include at least two (2) references from the text book, citing your source properly within the paper [Lucas. (2015). CUSTOMER SERVICE: SKILLS FOR SUCCESS, 6TH EDITION.] Use the APA style.
1). Think about what you learned about yourself through this experience. What do you consider your personal values? Consider how the service learning project helped you learn more about your personal values and attitudes. Did anything change over time for you?
2). What did you learn about the world beyond the classroom, the world in which you had the service experience? What surprised you?
3). Address at least two (2) of the following:
• How did your service connect with what you are learning in class?
• What is the impact of your service? For you? For the community?
• How do you feel about volunteering and corporate philanthropy? Is it important? Why or why not?
• What needs did your project address? What are the causes of those needs?
• How do people contribute to the problem? How can we, as a community, help to solve it?
• What did you learn about your own value to your agency? (This is especially important for those students who’ve not had a paying job up to this point).
• How does your understanding of the community change as a result of your experience?
• What were your expectations of this project prior to completing your hours versus what you feel were the ultimate outcomes? Were your expectations met? Why or why not?
• How can you continue your involvement in these or other issues? How can you, personally, raise others’ awareness
|Writing about your service-learning experiences|
The Preamble of the United States Constitution states that it is the duty of Americans to “promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to [themselves] and [their] posterity.” This specifically places the responsibility of protecting the environment, for not only the current generation, but also for future generations, on individuals. Monsma (2008) also specifically states that individuals must act to promote public policies which address the three key issues facing America today, extinction, pollution, and global warming (p.154). God provided the land for all humans to care for and enjoy; by using up all the earth’s resources without consideration for others is essentially a sin in the eyes of the Lord:
When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap your field right up to its edge, neither shall you gather the gleanings after your harvest. And you shall not strip your vineyard bare, neither shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard. You shall leave them for the poor and for the sojourner: I am the Lord your God. (Leviticus 19: 9-10, English Standard Version)
Monsma, S. (2008). Healing for a broken world: Christian perspectives on public policy. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. ISBN: 9781581349610.
U.S. Const., pmble.
Whitney Tillman DB 4 - Biblical Collapse
It is the duty of government to enforce environmental regulations because people are entitled to certain inalienable rights such as life, liberty, and property. Environmental protections should fall under this authority because if the environment is polluted then humans cannot enjoy life to the fullest extent; furthermore, Fischer (2013) states that policies which violate these rights are unjust. Monsma (2008) also reminds us that the earth and everything in it belongs to God, and humans are the caretakers of His creation (p.149). This point is further emphasized in Genesis 2: 15 (English Standard Version) which states, “The Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it.” For this reason, it is important for humans to hold their governments accountable for not enforcing restrictions and imposing sanctions against those individuals who are harming God’s creation.
Fischer, K. (2013). Biblical principles of government. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/PADM550_B02_201820/PADM550_LUO_8wk_MASTER_ImportedContent_20180105055628/Biblical%20Principles%20of%20Government.pdf
Monsma, S. (2008). Healing for a broken world: Christian perspectives on public policy. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. ISBN: 9781581349610.
|The Preamble of the United States Constitution|
Essay #2 Prompts
Due Monday, March 5
Write a 3 to 4 page, double-spaced typed, critical essay on any one question. Consult at least five other sources including our course textbook, and list all sources on a separate page.
Formatting guidelines for writing assignment: The following applies to all written assignments:
Ø Use APA, MLA, or Chicago writing standards to cite sources; include a reference page at the end.
Ø Essay must be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. Use a clear font that is highly readable. I recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Ø Include headers with your last name and page number.
Ø Late assignment: Subtract 5 points for each late day.
Ø Please turn in hardcopies of all written assignments. You can submit an electronic copy via email to avoid late penalty, but you must still bring a hard copy.
1. Using an example, describe the idea of paradigm shift advanced by Thomas Kuhn. Include a brief account of the different stages a theories goes through, according to Kuhn, before a paradigm shift occurs.
2. What does Kuhn mean when he says that theories, following a paradigm shift, are incommensurable? Explain this idea using an example (either the Copernican revolution or the Newtonian/Einsteinian revolution).
3. Write a critical essay describing the differences between the approaches to scientific progress taken by Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. Include brief accounts of falsification and paradigm shift before analyzing the two approaches.
4. “Our scientific knowledge is fallible, partial and approximate, but usually it is the most reliable means we have for predicting phenomena in the world around us.” Using this description, briefly sketch the debate between scientific realism v anti-realism. Using an example or two, point out some of the key distinctions between the approaches.
|PHL 339: History and Philosophy of Science|
For this final assignment, you will create a 6 - 8 page in-depth research paper on a topic you have selected that relates to one of the United Nations’ list of G-77 nations. The G-77 were originally the 77 nations the U.N. identified in 1967 as developing nations and the list has now expanded to 134 countries. These countries tend to have a low Human Development Index (HDI), displaying statistics and low scores on life expectancy, education, and income per capita. It is important to learn, explore, and understand the issues the people in these countries face.
Throughout this quarter, we have explored a diverse array of topics in international communication. Please write an in-depth research paper focusing on a few of the issues that affect your selected country. It is important to include the culture, context, and history of the country in your paper.
|COMM 441: International Communication Final Project|