Environmental Science Homework Help


# Description Question

Some people you know say they don't believe that the climate is changing. After completing this week's readings, how would you respond?

Write a 525- to 700-word response including:

  • How scientists learn about past global temperatures and climates
  • The greenhouse effect
  • Greenhouse gases and their role in current climate change
  • One piece of data scientists offer to show that the climate is changing globally                      
  • Expected impacts of climate change in your area                                                                    
Some people you know say they don't believe that the climate is changing.

National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2014). Simulation of an attic fire in a wood frame residential structure - Chicago, IL (NIST Technical Note 1838). Retrieved from http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/TechnicalNotes/NIST.TN.1838.pdf

National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2014, December 2). Simulation of an attic fire in a wood frame residential structure—Chicago [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nY3JO_Kf9Qk#t=14

Be sure to include the following in your case study:

• Examine the applicable building codes for this structure.

• How were they developed?

• Were they developed locally?

• Were they modified or adopted?

• If modified, how so?


• Analyze the tests conducted on materials found in the structure.

• What types of materials were used in the construction of the house?

• What were the results?

• What were the lessons learned?

Your case study response should be two to four pages in length and follow APA guidelines. Make sure to use the textbook and at least one additional scholarly reference from the CSU Online Library to support your response.

Review the following NIST technical note and video below:

Find a newspaper or magazine article that discusses Food Safety and/or Food Borne Illnesses. Write a 250-300 summary of the article and your thoughts on what you can do to reduce the risk of contracting a food borne illness. make sure you reference the article. It does not have to be a peer reviewed or scholarly article.

Food Safety

Please watch on your own the following 30 min movie:

Sierra's Club "Rats to Roses", https:llwww.youtube.com/watch?v=QrhSBUXxYMc

As you watch the movie, take notes and answer these questions - minimum 3 pages, double space, 12 pt:

1.      What are the environmentaL cultural and social benefits of community gardens in New York?

Discuss in detail. (1.5 page)

2.       Despite the benefits, why and how are community gardens endangered in New York? Explain. (0.5 page)

3.       How does the story discussed in the movie represent both distributive and procedural injustice?

Be specific and to answer this question consult lecture on environmental justice. (1 page

Assignment 4: Urban gardening

Workers need to enter a below-ground, concrete-lined vault to repair a leaking valve that controls the flow of wastewater from several buildings at your plant. The opening for the pit is outdoors and secured with a 36-inch diameter manhole cover. The pit is 12 feet deep, and the walls are 6 feet x 6 feet wide. The valve is at the bottom of the vault. You opened the cover, tested the atmosphere, and found oxygen levels to be at 16%. No toxic substances were detected. After ventilating the space for 15 minutes, the oxygen reading reached 18% and remained at that level. 
Address the following items: 
Using the flow chart in Appendix A of 29 CFR 1910.146, determine the classification of the space. 
Explain how you reached the decision. 
Based on your determination, develop an OSHA-compliant standard operating procedure (SOP) for workers to follow when entering the space to repair the valve. Include the citation(s) from 29 CFR 1910.146 for each step of the procedure. 
Your submission must be a minimum of two pages in length (double-spaced). Be sure to include a title page. 

To Appendix A of 29 CFR 1910.146 

Number of Pages: 2 Pages
Page Line Spacing: Double spaced (Default)
Deadline: 2 days
Academic Level: College
Paper Format: APA

Workers need to enter a below-ground,

Question 1       


  1. Discuss liquid effluent management strategies related to a sewer cleanout of a petrochemical facility.

    Your response should be at least 200 words in length. REFERENCE AFTER EACH  QUESTION

Question 2       


  1. Discuss liquid effluent management strategies related to chemical cleaning operations within an oil refinery facility.

    Your response should be at least 200 words in length. REFERENCE AFTER EACH  QUESTION

Question 3       


  1. Discuss the process for characterizing cake solids derived from a liquid treatment process as being either hazardous or non-hazardous.

    Your response should be at least 200 words in length. REFERENCE AFTER EACH  QUESTION

Question 4       


  1. Discuss the relevance of the analytical testing methods as they relate to modeling waste behaviors in a landfill.

    Your response should be at least 200 words in length. REFERENCE AFTER EACH  QUESTION
Need by tomorrow

showcase appropriate form and content according to audience and purpose

demonstrate effective incorporation of primary and secondary research into projects

feature innovative use of creativity and / or critical thinking


Write an individual researched project on a topic you are interested in related to the environment. You could write an informative or persuasive project, or a combination of the two. You could expand on your 2-page paper from earlier this term or something you wrote in one of your Discussion posts. Target page range: 5-10 pages, double spaced, 12 point font (MLA format preferred).




Grading Rubric


creative and clear title, opening sentence (hook) and main idea or thesis

(10 points)

paper develops idea fully and is within target page range: 5-10 pages(20 points)

paper uses examples, graphs, charts, images, quotations from sources, or other evidence to back up main ideas(10 points)paper cites sources appropriately(10 points)

organization is logical(10 points)

if an argument, paper presents and responds to opposing views effectively – if informative, paper is logical and credible(10 points)

project uses language, mechanics, grammar, and spelling effectively(10 points)

paper overall does a good job of reaching a target audience (this class, academia at large, or other audience if author has chosen another specific demographic)(20 points)

Total100 points


Topic: Agricultural Science


With regards to the agricultural science fair, since the project base is Florida, it should cover some of the pros and cons of genetically modified foods, which are found in plenty within every household. It would also need to cover aspects that surround the agricultural world, and the questions that should serve the people should include if the world can benefit more from the organically produced foods. It should also look to explain why some people go for the genetically modified foods, and this will in term help the participating teams not only learn but also change the different ways individuals view the organically produced foods about the genetically produced ones. Most importantly look at the environmental benefits of growing foods and the different ways climate change affect the crop yields within Florida

Compose and revise in a variety of genres that

For the following research paper assignment, you have been asked to perform an evaluation of employee exposures at a small automobile parts manufacturing facility. The manufacturing processes include two metal presses, two machining stations, three welding stations, a small paint booth, and a shipping/receiving area. There are two employees working at each press, one person working at each machining station, one person working at each welding station, two people working in the paint booth, and four employees working in the shipping/receiving area.

One of the presses is a 2,000-ton press, and the other press is a 200-ton press. The 2,000-ton press is the greatest noise source for the facility. The machining area uses a metal working fluid. The safety data sheet (SDS) for the metal working fluid is attached here. All welding is performed on stainless steel. The painting booth uses a powder coating operation, but the employees use xylene and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) to clean the parts prior to the powder coating operation. At the end of the shift, one of the employees uses 1,3 butadiene to clean the nozzles for the paint booth. The facility uses two electric forklifts to move materials between the production area and the storage warehouse and between the warehouse and the shipping area. All employees work an 8-hour shift.

Part 1:

Using the information on anticipation and control we studied in the textbook, identify the hazards that are present in the facility. In your discussion, explain why you chose the hazards, and describe whether you believe the hazards to be actual hazards or potential hazards (which require further evaluation). Describe the specific location(s) at the facility where the hazards are located, and determine how many employees are potentially at risk in those areas.

Your response for Part 1 should be at least one page in length.

Part 2: Using the information on evaluation that we studied in the textbook, summarize how you would measure the personal exposures to the hazards that you identified in Part 1. Use the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

website (https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html) or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) website (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-154/default.html ) to select the specific sampling and analytical method that would work best to evaluate any chemical hazards you identified. Provide a summary of the sampling media you would use, include the sampling flow rate, discuss how long you would sample, and explain how you would calibrate the sampling train. Include a discussion about why you selected the specific sampling and analytical method.

Your response to Part 2 should be at least one page in length.

Part 3: Access the attached sampling results  here

. For each set of results, perform the following actions:

Calculate the 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) exposure.

Compare the results to the appropriate OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL).

Determine which results exceed an established OSHA PEL.

Write a one-page summary of the sampling results; document the exposures that exceeded an OSHA PEL, and identify those areas that you believe will require the application of controls to reduce risk. Include your calculations, include a list of the OSHA PELs you compared the results to, and explain how you decided that an exposure exceeded an OSHA PEL.

Part 4:

Using OSHA’s hierarchy of controls, recommend the control methods that you believe would be the most effective for

reducing the risks associated with the exposures that exceeded the OSHA PEL above. Explain how you would implement

the controls and how you would evaluate the effectiveness of the controls. Also, discuss any interim control methods you would recommend for the facility.

This section should be at least one page in length.

Include a reference page and in-text citations for all sources you used in this project, including your textbook, using proper APA format.

Safety Data Sheet










Bright-Cut Metalworking Fluid AH, AM, NM


Product Use:  Metal Working Fluid


Product Number(s): 233944, 233945, 233946

Company Identification

AAA Products Company

a division of AAA U.S.A. Inc. 6001 Harvest Rd.


Anycity, CA 90000


United States of America


Transportation Emergency Response


CHEMTREC: (800) 555-9300 or (703) 555-3887


Health Emergency


AAA Emergency Information Center: Located in the USA. International collect calls accepted. (800)555 -0623 or (510) 555-0623


Product Information email : msds@aaa.com


Product Information: 1 (800) 555-3835, LUBET@aaa.com






CLASSIFICATION: Not classified as hazardous according to 29 CFR 1910.1200 (2012).













Highly refined mineral oil (C15 - C50)


70 - 99 %weight




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SDS :  7721











Description of first aid measures


Eye: No specific first aid measures are required. As a precaution, remove contact lenses, if worn, and flush eyes with water.


Skin: No specific first aid measures are required. As a precaution, remove clothing and shoes if contaminated. To remove the material from skin, use soap and water. Discard contaminated clothing and shoes or thoroughly clean before reuse.

Ingestion: No specific first aid measures are required. Do not induce vomiting. As a precaution, get medical advice.


Inhalation: No specific first aid measures are required. If exposed to excessive levels of material in the air, move the exposed person to fresh air. Get medical attention if coughing or respiratory discomfort occurs.


Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed IMMEDIATE HEALTH EFFECTS


Eye: Not expected to cause prolonged or significant eye irritation.


Skin: Contact with the skin is not expected to cause prolonged or significant irritation. Contact with the skin is not expected to cause an allergic skin response. Not expected to be harmful to internal organs if absorbed through the skin.

Ingestion: Not expected to be harmful if swallowed.


Inhalation: Not expected to be harmful if inhaled. Contains a petroleum-based mineral oil. May cause respiratory irritation or other pulmonary effects following prolonged or repeated inhalation of oil mist at airborne levels above the recommended mineral oil mist exposure limit. Symptoms of respiratory irritation may include coughing and difficulty breathing.




Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Not Applicable



EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Use water fog, foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide (CO2) to extinguish flames.





Fire Fighting Instructions: This material will burn although it is not easily ignited. See Section 7 for proper handling and storage. For fires involving this material, do not enter any enclosed or confined fire space without proper protective equipment, including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Combustion Products: Highly dependent on combustion conditions. A complex mixture of airborne solids, liquids, and gases including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and unidentified organic compounds will be evolved when this material undergoes combustion. Combustion may form oxides of: Sulfur.



Protective Measures: Eliminate all sources of ignition in vicinity of spilled material.


Spill Management: Stop the source of the release if you can do it without risk. Contain release to prevent further contamination of soil, surface water or groundwater. Clean up spill as soon as possible, observing




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precautions in Exposure Controls/Personal Protection. Use appropriate techniques such as applying non-combustible absorbent materials or pumping. Where feasible and appropriate, remove contaminated soil. Place contaminated materials in disposable containers and dispose of in a manner consistent with applicable regulations.


Reporting: Report spills to local authorities and/or the U.S. Coast Guard's National Response Center at (800) 555-8802 as appropriate or required.



General Handling Information: Avoid contaminating soil or releasing this material into sewage and drainage systems and bodies of water.


Precautionary Measures: Do not breathe oil mist at concentrations above the recommended mineral oil mist exposure limit.


Static Hazard: Electrostatic charge may accumulate and create a hazardous condition when handling this material. To minimize this hazard, bonding and grounding may be necessary but may not, by themselves, be sufficient. Review all operations which have the potential of generating and accumulating an electrostatic charge and/or a flammable atmosphere (including tank and container filling, splash filling, tank cleaning, sampling, gauging, switch loading, filtering, mixing, agitation, and vacuum truck operations) and use appropriate mitigating procedures.

Container Warnings: Container is not designed to contain pressure. Do not use pressure to empty container or it may rupture with explosive force. Empty containers retain product residue (solid, liquid, and/or vapor) and can be dangerous. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose such containers to heat, flame, sparks, static electricity, or other sources of ignition. They may explode and cause injury or death. Empty containers should be completely drained, properly closed, and promptly returned to a drum reconditioner or disposed of properly.






Consider the potential hazards of this material (see Section 3), applicable exposure limits, job activities, and other substances in the work place when designing engineering controls and selecting personal protective equipment. If engineering controls or work practices are not adequate to prevent exposure to harmful levels of this material, the personal protective equipment listed below is recommended. The user should read and understand all instructions and limitations supplied with the equipment since protection is usually provided for a limited time or under certain circumstances.




Use in a well-ventilated area.




Eye/Face Protection: No special eye protection is normally required. Where splashing is possible, wear safety glasses with side shields as a good safety practice.


Skin Protection: No special protective clothing is normally required. Where splashing is possible, select protective clothing depending on operations conducted, physical requirements and other substances in the workplace. Suggested materials for protective gloves include: 4H (PE/EVAL), Nitrile Rubber, Silver Shield, Viton.


Respiratory Protection: No respiratory protection is normally required.


If user operations generate an oil mist, determine if airborne concentrations are below the occupational exposure limit for mineral oil mist. If not, wear an approved respirator that provides adequate protection from the measured concentrations of this material. For air-purifying respirators use a particulate cartridge.




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Use a positive pressure air-supplying respirator in circumstances where air-purifying respirators may not provide adequate protection.


Occupational Exposure Limits:














Highly refined mineral oil (C15 -


5 mg/m3










Highly refined mineral oil (C15 -


5 mg/m3

10 mg/m3









Consult local authorities for appropriate values.



Attention: the data below are typical values and do not constitute a specification.


Color: Colorless to yellow


Physical State: Liquid


Odor: Petroleum odor


Odor Threshold: No data available pH: Not Applicable


Vapor Pressure:  <0.01 mmHg Maximum @ 37.8 °C (100 °F)


Vapor Density (Air = 1):  >1 Minimum


Initial Boiling Point:  315°C (599°F) Minimum


Solubility:    Soluble in hydrocarbons; insoluble in water


Freezing Point: Not Applicable


Melting Point: No data available


Specific Gravity: 0.86 - 0.88 @ 15.6°C (60.1°F) / 15.6°C (60.1°F) Density: 0.87 kg/l @ 15°C (59°F) (Typical)


Viscosity: 35.2 mm2/s @ 40°C (104°F) Minimum


Evaporation Rate: No data available Decomposition temperature: No data available Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: No data available




Flammability (solid, gas): No Data Available


Flashpoint: (ASTM D92) 180 °C (356 °F) Minimum Autoignition: No data available

Flammability (Explosive) Limits (% by volume in air): Lower:  Not Applicable  Upper:  Not Applicable



Reactivity: May react with strong acids or strong oxidizing agents, such as chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, etc.

Chemical Stability: This material is considered stable under normal ambient and anticipated storage and handling conditions of temperature and pressure.


Incompatibility With Other Materials: Not applicable


Hazardous Decomposition Products: Hydrogen Sulfide (Elevated temperatures)




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Hazardous Polymerization: Hazardous polymerization will not occur.



Information on toxicological effects


Serious Eye Damage/Irritation: The eye irritation hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.


Skin Corrosion/Irritation: The skin irritation hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.


Skin Sensitization: The skin sensitization hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.


Acute Dermal Toxicity: The acute dermal toxicity hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.


Acute Oral Toxicity: The acute oral toxicity hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.


Acute Inhalation Toxicity: The acute inhalation toxicity hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.

Acute Toxicity Estimate: Not Determined


Germ Cell Mutagenicity: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.


Carcinogenicity: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.


Reproductive Toxicity: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.


Specific Target Organ Toxicity - Single Exposure: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.


Specific Target Organ Toxicity - Repeated Exposure: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.




This product contains petroleum base oils which may be refined by various processes including severe solvent extraction, severe hydrocracking, or severe hydrotreating. None of the oils requires a cancer warning under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). These oils have not been listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Annual Report nor have they been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as; carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), or possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).


These oils have not been classified by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) as: confirmed human carcinogen (A1), suspected human carcinogen (A2), or confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (A3).







This material is not expected to be harmful to aquatic organisms.


The product has not been tested. The statement has been derived from the properties of the individual




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No data available.




This material is not expected to be readily biodegradable. The biodegradability of this material is based on an evaluation of data for the components or a similar material.


The product has not been tested. The statement has been derived from the properties of the individual components.




Bioconcentration Factor: No data available.


Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: No data available



Use material for its intended purpose or recycle if possible. Oil collection services are available for used oil recycling or disposal. Place contaminated materials in containers and dispose of in a manner consistent with applicable regulations. Contact your sales representative or local environmental or health authorities for approved disposal or recycling methods.




The description shown may not apply to all shipping situations. Consult 49CFR, or appropriate Dangerous Goods Regulations, for additional description requirements (e.g., technical name) and mode-specific or quantity-specific shipping requirements.








Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC code:


Not applicable






Immediate (Acute) Health Effects:




Delayed (Chronic) Health Effects:




Fire Hazard:




Sudden Release of Pressure Hazard:




Reactivity Hazard:







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01-1=IARC Group 1                          03=EPCRA 313


01-2A=IARC Group 2A                      04=CA Proposition 65


01-2B=IARC Group 2B                      05=MA RTK


02=NTP Carcinogen                         06=NJ RTK





No components of this material were found on the regulatory lists above.




All components comply with the following chemical inventory requirements: DSL (Canada), EINECS (European Union), IECSC (China), KECI (Korea), PICCS (Philippines), TSCA (United States).


One or more components does not comply with the following chemical inventory requirements: AICS (Australia), ENCS (Japan).




Under the New Jersey Right-to-Know Act L. 1983 Chapter 315 N.J.S.A. 34:5A-1 et. seq., the product is to be identified as follows: PETROLEUM OIL (Cutting oil)




Health:  0

Flammability:  1

Reactivity:  0


Health: 1

Flammability: 1

Reactivity: 0

(0-Least, 1-Slight, 2-Moderate, 3-High, 4-Extreme, PPE:- Personal Protection Equipment Index recommendation, *- Chronic Effect Indicator). These values are obtained using the guidelines or published evaluations prepared by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or the National Paint and Coating Association (for HMIS ratings).




Label Category : METALWORKING FLUID 1 - MWF1



REVISION STATEMENT: This revision updates the following sections of this Safety Data Sheet: 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,12,14,16

Revision Date: APRIL 20, 2015






Threshold Limit Value



Time Weighted Average



Short-term Exposure Limit



Permissible Exposure Limit



Globally Harmonized System



Chemical Abstract Service Number


-  American Conference of Governmental


-   International Maritime Dangerous Goods

Industrial Hygienists




API  -

American Petroleum Institute



Safety Data Sheet



Hazardous Materials Information System



National Fire Protection Association (USA)



Department of Transportation (USA)



National Toxicology Program (USA)




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International Agency for Research on


-  Occupational Safety and Health Administration








New Chemical Exposure Limit


Environmental Protection Agency



Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus



Prepared according to the 29 CFR 1910.1200 (2012) by Chevron Energy Technology Company, 6001 Bollinger Canyon Road San Ramon, CA 94583.


The above information is based on the data of which we are aware and is believed to be correct as of the date hereof. Since this information may be applied under conditions beyond our control and with which we may be unfamiliar and since data made available subsequent to the date hereof may suggest modifications of the information, we do not assume any responsibility for the results of its use. This information is furnished upon condition that the person receiving


it shall make his own determination of the suitability of the material for his particular purpose.












































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Unit VIII Research Paper

The research proposal in this course is designed to allow you to discover, analyze, and interpret a fire-related research problem. A problem is not necessarily a troublesome area but an area of desired improvement. In other words, something may be performing well, yet someone still wants to see it perform even better. That is what a lot of research is all about— how can we do it better? Include at least the following elements in your research proposal: a title page; a table of contents; an introduction; the purpose of the research with support for your points from scholarly material; a literature review, which is different from the annotated bibliography, a hypothesis; a description of the research method, what you would do if you were to carry out the study; conclusions and recommendations; and a reference page. Click here to view the short video for more guidance concerning the proposal assignment. Click here for a transcript of the video. The proposal should be 10 full double-spaced pages not including the title page, references, abstract, or any appendices. You proposal should provide 12 sources that include empirical studies. Be sure to summarize, paraphrase, and cite the information. Do not copy directly from the textbook or from any other source. Websites such as Wikipedia, e-how.com, history.com, howthingswork.com, and other similar sources are not FIR 4308, Applications in Fire Research 4 scholarly in nature and may not be used for this assignment. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations and entries in the reference section. All references and citations used must be in APA style.

The research proposal

After a week of trying your method to help conserve your species, write up a paper discussing how it went. Be sure to address the following questions:

  1. What action you chose and why you chose it.
  2. What planning you needed to do ahead of implementing the action. What data you recorded before implementing the change.
  3. How you implemented your actions. What exactly was it that you did?
  4. How things went while you were implementing your action. Were there any unforeseen obstacles?
  5. The data you recorded while or after implementing your change and how it compares to the data from before you implemented the change.
  6. Present the data in a figure.
  7. Did you incur any benefit from the change in your actions? Were you happier? Did it save you money? Did it bring more animals to your yard? Did you feel better knowing you were helping save a species?
  8. Will you continue to implement your action? Why or why not?


  • Your written paper should be three to four pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages, which you must include.
  • APA Citations!
This is your time to act in the name of conservation of the Serengeti,

Among the most controversial topics in physical science, global warming has received a great deal of attention during the past decade. Given its great impact on both humans and the environment, lawmakers and scientists must heavily weigh the information that they are presented. Explore this debate in more detail by evaluating both the scientific basis of this phenomenon and the human role in global warming.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Compare and contrast natural versus anthropogenic climate changes. Include at least two (2) specific examples of each.
  2. Take a position as to whether or not global warming is taking place. Provide three (3) lines of evidence to support your position.
  3. Assess two (2) current mitigation strategies for global warming, such as carbon sequestration, carbon taxing, clean coal technology, higher fuel efficiency standards, and so on. Analyze the effectiveness of this mitigation strategy, as well as its potential costs and policy implications.
  4. Speculate on the policy changes that you would propose to help stabilize global climate and determine the business sectors or nations that would be held to more strict standards if you were to implement your proposed policies.
  5. Use at least four (4) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your report must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Apply concepts in physical sciences to evaluate current trends and issues in the modern world.
  • Describe the physical processes influencing climate and weather.  
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in physical sciences.
  • Write clearly and concisely about physical sciences using proper writing mechanics.
Among the most controversial topics in physical science

In your textbook, you have read about five general categories of experimental, quasi-experimental, and ex-post facto designs.

Pick two of those designs and discuss the practical research applications for those two categories. 

Which ones would be best, in your opinion, for establishing cause-and-effect relationships?

Research Methods

Environmental health publications provided below review. Using the attached written assignment template, you will write an essay describing what was discussed in the publication, what you learned from it, and what you would do for the future. Your review should be similar to the conclussion section of the research paper

Environmental health publications provided below review.

Homework 2 – GEOL 1405 / ENVR 1401

Due Thursday, March 8th

Covers chapters 5, 6 and 8 - 11 of your textbook


1. Name one ecosystem service that nature provides for “free”.


2. Who often ends up paying for the “external costs” incurred by industries that degrade the environment?


3. What do economists mean by market failure?


4. What factors are included in GPI that are not considered in GDP?


5. Briefly summarize the scenario known as the “tragedy of the commons.”


6. What was the world’s first national park?


7. What are the functions of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act?


8. What is the function of a Green Tax?


9. Googler: True or False…the U.S. government still subsidizes the oil and gas industry.


10. Googler: What does the EPA do?


11. What is one reason we can’t just keep expanding farmland (using current industrial farming techniques) to keep pace with population growth forever?  What do we have to do instead?


12. Describe two kinds of Malnutrition.


13. Define leaching (in reference to soils).


14. Name and briefly describe the 5 soil horizons (in order).


15. Name 6 different strategies to help conserve soil.


16. What is a weed?  What is a pest?


17. What is one new way that farmers are preventing water waste in irrigation?


18. What are 3 benefits of no-till farming?


19. Why are antibiotics so heavily used in CAFO’s (feedlots)?  What is one reason that this is a problem?


20. What is a transgenic organism?


21. Why is species diversity generally higher near the equator?


22. “Googler”: Name one generalist species that has thrived due to human disturbance?


23. Imagine a plant species that is hidden deep in the rainforest and has yet to be discovered by man.  Name one reason we might not want it to become extinct.


24. Define background extinction rate.


25. Name three factors scientist attribute to the global decline of amphibians.


26. Describe the positive relationship between forests and aquifers.


27. What are at least two differences between a primary and secondary forest?


28. Where did the paper that comprises your textbook come from?


29. In what way do you, the taxpayer, subsidize private lumber harvesting on public land?


30. How are animals affected by forest fragmentation?


31. What effect is global warming having on the spread of certain diseases?


32. “Googler”: Define persistent organic pollutant.  Name one example.


33. What is meant by LD50?


34. Why must certain countries use DDT?


35. What agency sets human chemical exposure standards in the U.S.?


36. Explain how toxicants can become concentrated at Earth’s poles and mountain regions?


37. Name and Describe (including width, density, and composition) the 3 layers of the Earth.


38. What are 3 ways we can protect humans from geological disasters?


39. What is the purpose of the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act?


40. What are 3 environmental risks associated with mountaintop removal mining?


Homework 2 – GEOL 1405 / ENVR 1401

Atrazine is the second most widely used herbicide in the US. The EPA estimates that 80 million pounds are used annually. In 2001, over 7 million pounds of atrazine were used in Indiana, and over 12 million pounds were used in Illinois. Because atrazine has been linked to health problems, the US Environmental Protection Agency has established a drinking water standard for atrazine of 3 parts per billion, or 0.003 mg/L. Atrazine has been under review by the USEPA and a regulatory decision is anticipated in 2016.

Calculations - to be handed in during class

Consider an agricultural watershed with an area of 7000 hectares (ha). A stream drains the watershed into a lake with a surface area of 36 ha and a depth of 5 meters. The outflow of the lake is 118 liters per second. A nearby town uses the lake as a water supply. Atrazine is applied to the watershed each year at an average rate of 0.045 kg/ha. Answer the following questions:

1. In one year, how much atrazine is applied to the watershed in total?

2. If, during a normal year, 3 % of the total atrazine applied to the watershed was washed off the fields by rain storms and transported to the lake, what would be the resulting concentration of atrazine in the lake? Express your answer in parts per billion. . (HINT: first calculate the volume of the lake, then determine the atrazine concentration in the lake.).

3. Calculate the average residence time of Atrazine in the lake.

Policy Memo

Response should be typed and must include citations. Please attach all work and submit via Canvas. 

Do NOT commit any act of plagiarism. You need to paraphrase any source for your work.  It is very clear when it is not your work.  Read the information and explain in YOUR words what it means. 

In wet years as much as 7% or more of total Atrazine applied can be lost to surface water sources. Please write a policy memo that persuades policy makers either in favor of the continued use of Atrazine or to ban Atrazine as the UK has already done. Please address the following questions in the memo and address the concerns that may be present.

· The towns concern about their drinking water supply in this scenario?

· What type of pesticide atrazine is and how long is remains in the environment?

· the effects of atrazine on human health

· the effects of atrazine on wildlife

· Impact of atrazine on groundwater

· the implications to farmers if Atrazine was banned, ie address cost benefit issues if a ban

Guidance: Please see the documents on Canvas I have provided for you. The memo should be 1 page single spaced with 0.5 inch margins on all sides, add an additional space between paragraphs. You can/should use subheadings to guide the reader. However, this does not mean use the questions I have asked you to address as subheadings.  All citations for this will need to be peer reviewed primary literature. Review the literature I have provided. You may also use your textbook. All citations need to be included in text and at the end of the document, not to be included in the page count. Be direct and to the facts.  Do not add extra fluff and unimportant information.

Articles on Atrazine

Acherman_Atrazine_2007.pdfPreview the document

Atrazine_Birth_Weights_Cancer.pdfPreview the document

Links to an external site.

https://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/atrazine-background-and-updates (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. 

Guidance for Writing a Policy Memo

http://courses.umass.edu/polsc399/readings.html/writing-policy-memos.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. - good information on how to write a policy memo

http://twp.duke.edu/sites/twp.duke.edu/files/file-attachments/policy-memo.original.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.) - good information, however do not include a executive summary

[Note that although the above is a hypothetical case, the data are realistic of conditions in the Midwest, including Indiana.]




View the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) video and address the assignment questions:

  1. What criteria define “releases” covered under CERCLA?
  2. What are the responses that may be triggered by CERCLA? Which two do you find least effective? Describe why.
  3. What impacts do brownfields have on a community, and should government help disadvantaged communities in dealing with these sites? Why? Support your answer with an example from the literature.

Length: Submit a 3- to 4-page paper.

Recommended Reading

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). CERCLA overview. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/cercla.htm

Required Reading

Carruth, R. S., & Goldstein, B. D. (2013). Chapter 6: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or “Superfund Act”). In Environmental health law: An introduction (pp. 131–156). Somerset, NJ, USA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley.

Beames, A., Broekx, S., Heijungs, R., Lookman, R., Boonen, K., Van Geert, Y., . . . Seuntjens, P. (2015). Accounting for land-use efficiency and temporal variations between brownfield remediation alternatives in life-cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 101 77(6), 109-117.

Gardner, R. W., & Pusha, R., III. (2014). The West Virginia chemical spill and environmental liabilities in a post-apex world. American Bankruptcy Institute Journal, 33(4), 38–83.

National priorities list. (2016). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

Rasher, B. (2015). Commentary: Report card on the market-based approach to Brownfield redevelopment. Public Administration Review, 75(2), 262-263. doi:10.1111/puar.12345

Revision of certain federal water quality criteria applicable to Washington. (2015). (). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventory-tri-program

Washington, tribes urge 9th circuit to uphold CERCLA air emissions ruling. (2015). Inside EPA's Clean Air Report, 26(22).

Yohannan, S. (2016). Judges press governments on CERCLA air emissions 'disposal' claim. Inside EPA Weekly Report, 37(15).


‘Sports’ have likely been around as long as there have been people. Every society has its favorite pastimes, and today with ever-advancing technologies, there is the ability to design high-tech equipment and utilize a host of specialists to help athletes perform better. It is such an important part of society that there are now fields dedicated to the study of sports medicine and fitness. No matter what sport or type of recreation you enjoy, the principles of science are involved.

Take a look at how science helps in different sports from football, to swimming, to NASCAR™.

You are encouraged to conduct additional research to learn more about a sport or other recreational activity that you enjoy.

During the unit address the following questions:

  1. Share some information about the science behind your sport or recreation of choice.
  2. How can you categorize the scientific information that you learned about your sport/recreation? For example, does it involve physics, chemistry, and/or biology?
  3. What technological advances have been made in your favorite activity during its history?
  4. Have there been any previously held beliefs or customs in your sport/recreation that have been dismissed by scientific research? If so, please explain.
  5. Now that you have done some research on the science involved in your favorite activity, do you think you can use that information to perform better? Why, or why not?

Discussion Requirements


Unit 10 Discussion

Citizen Science

There are many great research projects already in place that use volunteers and modern technology to harness the help of citizen scientists like you. It is a great way for people to learn more about a subject that they are interested in while helping researchers gather important information.

In this unit, you have reviewed various resources to learn more about Citizen Science. Using the assigned readings for this unit and conducting some research on your own, investigate other citizen science projects currently in place.

In your posts this unit answer the following questions:

  1. What is “citizen science”?
  2. What is the benefit of using regular citizens to assist with scientific research in this way?
  3. What citizen science program(s) interests you the most? Please provide a specific link and information about your chosen citizen science program.
  4. Would you be interested in giving any of the citizen science programs a try? Why, or why not?
  5. Formulate at least one way you would use media to advertise the citizen science program you are interested in and describe why you think the advertisement would be successful.
The Evolution of Science and Sports

Many difficult controversies surround the environmental problems we face in the world today. Problems include: Air and water pollution, global warming, species and ecosystem biodiversity, energy, hazardous waste, population, and food supply issues. Politics control the financing of scientific research and development to help solve these issues. In politics passion wins over logic.

Science is not politics and cannot be debated in the same way politics are. Mixing politics with science produces bad science. Government efforts to fund research interfere with the maintenance of high scientific standards. The current Congress consists of 535 members. Of these members, 7 (1.3%), are scientists, and 21 others are healthcare professionals.Lamb, G. (2005, September 27). Science and politics: a dangerous mix. Christian Science Monitor, 97(213), 11-13. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database: The Republican War on Science lives up to its incendiary title. The book will undoubtedly raise hackles among conservatives and spawn sharp-tongued counterattacks. But the real test of its efficacy may be whether or not it persuades independents and moderate Republicans that without a new approach toward science America is headed for what the author calls "economic, ecological, and social calamity."


As a good polemicist, Chris Mooney, a journalist who specializes in writing about science and politics, knows to protect his argument by first making two concessions.

First, not all Republicans have been antiscience. Teddy Roosevelt was a great early conservationist. Dwight Eisenhower was the first president to recognize that the White House needed a science adviser. Ronald Reagan's surgeon general, C. Everett Koop, weighed scientific evidence "dispassionately" on subjects like AIDS and the health effects of abortion and declared, "I am the nation's surgeon general, not the nation's chaplain."


Even the first President Bush was largely regarded by scientists as "a friend," Mr. Mooney says. And today, a few GOP mavericks like Sen. John McCain speak the truth on issues like global warming.

Secondly, Mooney wisely - albeit briefly - acknowledges that liberals have also sometimes twisted science for their own political ends. Some of the alarm over genetically modified foods has exceeded what science shows; animal rights activists have argued that animal testing isn't necessary when most scientists disagree; and some Democratic politicians have overstated the likelihood that stemcell research will produce quick cures.

But these transgressions, Mooney says, pale in comparison with the breathtaking audacity of Mr. Bush's "New Right" in its cynical manipulation of science. In a kind of Orwellian newspeak, they label conventional science as "junk science" and seek to replace it with what they call "sound science" - in other words, questionable, fringe science that conveniently props up the interests of big industry and conservative Christians.


All sides might agree that science should inform policy, not make it. Other considerations may trump it. But what irks Mooney is when, in his eyes, science is distorted to defend a policy.


In this regard, Mooney contrasts the Clinton and Bush administrations in their approaches to needle-exchange programs for drug addicts. Numerous reputable scientific studies show that needle-exchange programs reduce the transmission of AIDS without encouraging drug abuse. The Clinton administration acknowledged these findings, but simply decided to ignore them, apparently unwilling to take an unpopular political stance.


The Bush administration also opposed needle-exchange programs but "twisted the science," Mooney says, by insisting that some scientists doubted the findings. Yet when the press followed up, the scientists cited by the White House said they had no such doubts.


A key GOP tactic, Mooney says, has been "magnifying uncertainty" - finding a few dissenting voices on the scientific fringe and calling for "more research" to forestall action - a tactic the tobacco industry used for decades, he says.


Chapter by chapter, Mooney picks through the hot-button issues - global warming, creationism, intelligent design, stem cells - and finds conservatives politicizing and distorting the science involved.


He rejects the idea of even "teaching the controversy" over these issues in schools, arguing that the far right has invented the controversy itself by ginning up a kind of faux science alternative that has no solid basis. He isn't even willing to move the controversy out of science classes into social studies or current events.


Mooney does offer a brief list of solutions. Congress should revive the Office of Technology Assessment "or a close equivalent," which once offered nonpartisan scientific advice to lawmakers. The White House should restore its science adviser from his peripheral position now to the president's inner circle, where the office resided under President Kennedy. Journalists should resist slick PR campaigns and "spin" on science-related stories.


(According to Mooney, although a "powerful consensus" exists among scientists that global climate change is under way, that has not been reflected in the mainstream press, which feels compelled for reasons of "balance" to report as though the issue were still in doubt.)


"Our future relies on our intelligence … nourishing disturbing anti-intellectual tendencies - cannot deliver us there successfully or safely," Mooney warns.


For those who have felt even vaguely disturbed by their government's attitude toward science, this book is likely to bring those concerns into sharp focus.


Pielke Jr., R. (2006, Spring2006). When Scientists Politicize Science. Regulation, 29(1), 28-34. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from Business Source Complete database


Questions: Do you feel that scientists should be cut out of the policy making process, particularly on environmental issues, when their research is proven and widely accepted and is being ignored and disputed? Politicians ultimately make the decisions, but shouldn't the scientists have a voice?


Do you feel that lobbyists and special interest groups exert too great of an influence and act as an impediment to finding solutions to, and providing the funding for, research for the environmental problems we face?

The Environmental Problems We Face In The

1 All of the following happen at an "opening conference" except which one?



The compliance officer will inquire whether a union represents the employees.


The compliance officer will offer to fax or send certification credentials to the employer


The employer is told of the planned scope of the inspection


The compliance officer will identify the records he would like to review during his inspection



OSHA inspectors are called ________.



inspection officers


compliance officers


detail officer


supervisory enforcement officers


The "opening conference" is characterized by all of the following except which one?



The compliance officer will state what specifically he would like to do during the physical inspection.


The compliance officer will identify the physical locations he would like to inspect.


The compliance officer will state the reason for the inspection.


The compliance officer will request no union representative or complainant employee accompany the inspection.


OSHA's authority to inspect workplaces is set forth in what section of the Act?



Section 10 (a)


Section 6 (a)


Section 8 (a)


Section 2 (a)


Which of the following is not a good audit tip to avoid legal pitfalls?



Be prepared to respond in a timely fashion to every hazard identified in the audit.


Document every significant step taken to respond to hazards.


Neither exaggerate nor understate problems found in the audits.


Only destroy audit documents that have no paper trail.


When OSHA requests a court to issue a warrant, it must establish what to justify the search?



a relaxed possible cause standard


historical record of violations


a relaxed probable cause standard


none of the above, because it has the right to do so without justification based on Section 8(e)


What term is applied to a privilege created by the courts, as opposed to that created by a legislature?









Common Law



All of the following factors are used to determine if the common law audit attorney/client privilege exists except which one?



Whether there is a low public interest in encouraging audits of this type to be considered.


Whether there is a strong likelihood that not applying the privilege in this context will discourage companies from conducting these types of audits.


Whether the information at issue was generated in the course of a self-audit conducted by the company.


Whether the company intentionally preserved the confidentiality of the information.



OSHA's self-audit policy:



extends to information gathered as analyses, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the audit.


was published in the Federal Register in January 2000.


is legally binding.


states that it will issue a citation for a violative condition discovered as a result of the self-audit.


All of the following are exceptions to OSHA's warrant requirements except which one?



plain view




a union contract is in place



Briefly outline the purpose, scope, provisions and limitations of OSHAs Voluntary Self-Audit Policy. What are the risks to your company of this approach to achieving a safe work environment?

Please provide approximately 200-300 words and a reference citation for your source material in your response.


What are the key points that should be covered during an opening conference, both from the OSHA Inspector and from you, the safety/health/environmental manager?

Please provide approximately 200-300 words and a reference citation for your source material in your response.





UNIT 6 The answers are found in chapters 11, 12, and 13 0f attached pdf book


  1. In the OSHA area, the applicability of criminal charges is restricted to narrow circumstances. Which of the following is not one of those circumstances?



if an individual gives advanced notice of an inspection


if an employer's willful violation of an OSHA standard results in the death of an employee


if an individual or employer knowingly makes any false statement, representation, or certification under the OSH Act


if an OSHA designated employee or contractor does not show proper identification upon entering a private company's premises

4 points   

Question 2

Which of the following is not a standard citation for an OSHA violation?



criminal violation 


other than serious violations


serious violations


willful violations

4 points   

Question 3

What is it known as when OSHA issues a separate citation for each instance of a violation?



repeat violations


egregious penalty policy


willful and serious violations


de Maximus violations

4 points   

Question 4

Which of the following is not true regarding judicial review of enforcement actions?



The role of the federal courts under the OSH Act is limited.


The courts have concluded that manufacturers do not have standing to appeal a Commission decision on an OSHA violation involving the manufacturer's machinery.


An employer may not seek judicial review if it has not followed the required administrative procedures.


A court of appeals does not have jurisdiction to consider the constitutionality of the OSH Act during an appeal of a final Commission order.

4 points   

Question 5

Under what section of the OSH Act authorizes the Secretary of Labor to seek judicial review of a final Commission order [29 U.S.C. § 660(b)] ?



Section 11 (b)


Section 8 (e)


Section 6 (b)


Section 10 (f)

4 points   

Question 6

In what case did the court overturn a Commission decision on grounds that the decision was speculative and not supported by substantial evidence in the record?



CH2M Hill v. OSHRC


Penn-Dixie v. OSHRC


Oil, Chem. & Atomic Workers v. OSHRC


Austin Road v. OSHRC

4 points   

Question 7

A violation can be characterized as ________ meaning that it has "no direct or immediate relationship to safety or health".





other than serious


de minimis



4 points   

Question 8

If a settlement agreement cannot be reached with the OSHA Area Director, a Notice of Contest of the citation or penalty must be filed with the Secretary of Labor within what period of time to preserve any right to challenge the citation?



10 working days


15 working days


30 working days


60 working days

4 points   

Question 9

Which of the following is a false statement?



After the OSHA area director transmits the notice of contest to the Review Commission, an ALJ is assigned to the case.


Regarding intent to contest a citation by an employer to OSHA, oral notice is sufficient if it is communicated within 15 days after receiving the citation.


Hearings before ALJ's follow trial-type procedures similar to those used in federal court.


The Review Commission has assessed penalties on a per-instance basis even when the violations were not willful.

4 points   

Question 10

What section of the OSH Act provides that any party adversely affected by an OSHA standard may seek pre-enforcement judicial review by filing a petition prior to 60 days after promulgation of the final rule?



Section 6 (f)


Section 8 (e)


Section 8 (c)


Section 7 (f)






Discuss and assess the potential for multiplied penalties for egregious violations.

Provide approximately 200-300 words in your response and a citation for your source material.






What are the important findings in Austin Road Co. v. OSHRC and Builders Steel Co. v. Marshall?

Provide approximately 200-300 words in your response and a citation for your source material.






The link below is the assigned book for the class


Please answer these questions and provide a reference in APA format.

Most organizations hire contractors in some capacity, either to aid in production work or to provide ancillary services, such as cleaning, maintenance, remodeling, and food service. Identify the types of contractors used by your current organization or an organization with which you are familiar, and discuss how the contractor’s operations could adversely affect the health and safety of your organization’s employees. What procedures are in place, or should be in place, to prevent any adverse effects?
Your response must be at least 300 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

Use the flow diagram on page 11 of OSHA Publication 3088, How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies, to determine if your current organization (or an organization with which you are familiar) is required to have an Emergency Action Plan as outlined in 29 CFR 1910.38. If an EAP is required, evaluate the current level of compliance, and provide recommendations for improvement. If your organization is not required to have an EAP, provide an argument as to why one should be established. 

Your response must be at least 300 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

Unit 5 represents the core duties of an EHS leader, pure blocking and tackling to put it into an analogy.  Just like a football team… it doesn’t matter how great the quarterback is, or how impressive the running back is, if the team cannot execute on the fundamentals of blocking and tackling they will never reach their full potential.

Developing a hazard inventory with full evaluations and control systems in place is the pinnacle of what the EHS professional strives for.  Describe to the professor and your friends in the class exactly what systematic method you would implement to insure that all hazards would be identified in your workplace.  How would you go about feeling comfortable that hazards have been discovered?


Unit 5 represents the core duties of an EHS leader,

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