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Module 2 Application Assignment: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics


As a clinical mental health counselor, it is important to understand the biological processes related to mental health issues. Understanding the relationship between biology and substance abuse or addiction is critical. This assignment will help you to clarify your understanding of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.

You should also listen to the lecture, review supplemental materials, and use the rubrics as guides to help you complete the assignment. This assignment will count toward your final grade and is due by Day 7, and is worth 50 points.

As part of this assignment, you will reflect on the reading material, videos, and information from the Pearson Lab - Learning Outcomes 2 and 3. You should complete all of the activities associated with learning outcomes in the lab and watch the associated videos.

Learning Outcomes

1.   Define and understand the terminology commonly associated with the field of chemical dependency.

2.   Describe the major effects of depressants, stimulants, cannabinoids, hallucinogens, opioids, and inhalants on the human brain and biological and physiological processes of the body.

3.   Describe the genetic, biological, environmental, social, psychological, and philosophical influences of addiction.


Read your textbook chapters and additional resources. Also, complete all of the related material in MyCounselingLab. Reflect on the following as part of this assignment (two or three pages).

1.   Discuss the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of opioids (2-3 paragraphs). Be sure to identify neurotransmitters, specific sites in the brain that play a role with opioids, and information related to how the drug is metabolized.

2.   Review the physiological and psychological process related to withdrawal from opioids. Symptoms and processes vary based on individual differences, the class of substance used, the amount of substance taken, and the length of time over which the substance was taken. Compare and contrast withdrawal from opioids from withdrawal from alcohol (2 paragraphs)


3.   Seriousness of symptoms may require a different level of care. Counselors need to know about these complications and the appropriate treatment recommendations for clients who are at risk. Discuss the considerations for treatment level related to opioid abuse/dependence. What symptoms might be present? What might be of medical concern? (1-2 paragraphs).

4.   Discuss how you might explain to a client the physiology of tolerance. (2 paragraphs). Provide any necessary graphs or charts you might use.

 Support your Application assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation.

Assignment should be 2-3 pages.

Article Critique


1.   Go to the Lamar University Library and download the following article:

Stoops, W. W., Hatton, K. W., Lofwall, M. R., Nuzzo, P. A., & Walsh, S. L. (2010). Intravenous oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine in recreational opioid users: Abuse potential and relative potencies. Psychopharmacology, 212(2), 193-203. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1942-4

2.   Read the assigned article for the week

3.   Consider all of the associated reading materials and MyCounselingLab materials

4.   Provide a critique of the assigned article using related reading and materials in support of your critique.

5.   Critique must include all five criteria:

a.   Introduction and summary of the article

b.    Major strengths in the article.

c.   Major weaknesses or gaps in the article

d.   Two areas to consider in the practice of substance abuse counseling

e.   Personal reflection and conclusion

6.   Use APA formatting.







This is the Title of My Assignment

My Name

Course Name

Lamar University

Semester Year Term

This is the Title of My Assignment

Introduction or Article Summary

Here is where you will discuss the first criteria of the critique. Provide a brief summary of the key points of the article, including the problem statement and purpose of the study.  Distinguish your thoughts from the author(s) words and include appropriate citations. Also, remember to use quotes sparingly or not at all (paraphrase instead when using sources) to show you understand and can apply the material. Times New Roman 12 point font, double spacing, and one inch margins on all four sides are used throughout the paper. This section should be one to two paragraphs total. A reader who has not read the article should be able to understand your summary. Keep in mind, however, that the critique below should be longer than your summary.

Major Strengths

Here is where you will discuss the major strengths in the article. Some of the questions you should ask yourself: What parts of the article do you think the author(s) did that was positive? What was learned from the article? Is the title appropriate and clear? Is the purpose of the article made clear? Are the methods described adequately?  Is the sample selection described representative and unbiased? Are the statistical methods appropriate? Did the authors include a theoretical framework? Is it appropriate for this study?  Did the author(s) provide a sufficient and relevant literature review? Have any ideas been over or under emphasized? (give examples and suggestions for revisions).  What is the validity and reliability of the study?

Major Weaknesses

Here is where you will discuss any weaknesses in the article. What are the limitations? Do the data and conclusions contradict each other?  Was the discussion relevant? You can ask yourself some of the same questions as above, and apply them as either strengths or weaknesses, depending on your critique. There is no right or wrong here. It is your qualified opinion of the article.  

Future areas to Consider

What questions remain unanswered? How could future studies be improved?  Focus on areas to consider in the practice of substance abuse counseling. What type of clientele would benefit from this research approach?

Reflection and Conclusion

            These are your conclusions, not the authors. Ask yourself, what surprised you or struck you as interesting? If you totally agree or disagree with the author(s), discuss that here and explain what you really thought about this article. In your opinion, do the data support the conclusions made by the author(s)? Are the results thought provoking? What was the most important thing you learned by reading and critiquing this article?

Before submitting your assignment, make sure you proofread your paper for mechanics, usage, grammar, spelling, and sentence structure and ensure all assignment criteria have been met. Each section of your review (each of the five criteria) should be at least one well-developed paragraph.




(Notice that this starts on a new page. To make sure it stays on its own page, use Insert Page Break). Your references will follow the general format below and will be double spaced without additional spaces between references. This is an example of how to cite a journal article from Week 1. Be sure to consult your APA manual for specific instructions on reference formatting of various sources. Note that the directs say to provide a critique of the assigned article using related reading and materials in support of your critique, so you should have more than one reference here.

Birnbaum, H. G., White, A. G., Schiller, M., Waldman, T. Cleveland, J. M., & Roland, C. L.  (2011). Societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States. Pain Medicine, 12(4), 657-667.







Module 2 Application Assignment
14349 na Which of the following structures is found in all cells
14348 na Which of the following structures is found in all cells
14347 its an exam with 20 questions the subject is pharmacy technician pharmacy technician

For this assignment, you'll write three limericks about neuroscience.  A limerick is a miniature poem. Here's an example, about neuroplasticity:

It's a fortunate person whose brain
Is trained early, again and again,
And who continues to use it
To be sure not to lose it,
So the brain, in old age, may not wane.

(in Rosenzweig & Bennett (1996). Behavioral Brain Research, 78, 57-65)

Each of your three limericks should be five lines long, and should obey the conventional limerick rhyming structure (AABBA; the first, second, and fifth lines should rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth should rhyme as well).  Usually the first, second, and fifth lines are a little longer than the third and fourth lines.

One of your limericks should be about neurons, one of your limericks should be about a neurotransmitter of your choice, and one of your limericks should be about a brain structure, region, or lobe of your choice.  Your limericks should each present accurate and thoughtful descriptions of their biological functions, and their role in psychology.

Your submission, like all reflection assignments, will be graded according to the following rubric:

  • ONE POINT: Consistently addresses assignment instructions with irrelevant information, ignores instructions, or provides superficial, incomplete, or unwarranted responses to the instructions.  
  • TWO POINTS: Mostly addresses the assignment instructions, but includes misinterpretations of evidence, faulty conclusions, or presents claims that are not consistent.  Two points will be given if the submission is reasonably complete, but still appears to have been given minimal thought and critical analysis.
  • THREE POINTS: Consistently addresses the assignment instructions with accurate interpretations of evidence, identifies the most important aspects of the topic, and presents conclusions that demonstrate thoughtful analysis and evaluation.

 Your limericks must be written originally, by you.  Submissions will be processed through to ensure their originality.

three limericks about neuroscience

For this assignment, write a 1,000-1,250-word paper on SICKLE CELL DISEASE. Include the following: Use subheadings, APA, proper reference and in text citation

1. Examine how genetics can influence policy issues.

2. Discuss any nutritional influences for the cause of this disease.

3. Discuss the process of nutritional assessment and counseling as it relates to health, prevention, screening, diagnostics, prognostics, selection of treatment, and monitoring of treatment effectiveness.

4. Discuss the prevalence rates, testing, treatment, and prognosis as they relate to human nutrition.

Health science

This activity is designed to expose you to a variety of nursing theory perspectives.

Select a nursing theory you have researched in past weeks.

Analyze the theory. Your analysis should include:

  • Description of the theory's background and influencing factors, including worldview
  • Explanation of the underlying assumptions
  • Evaluation of major strengths and weaknesses
  • Application strategies for clinical practice
  • Citation of case example from personal or professional life that describe the application in practice

Cite at least three scholarly articles.

Format your assignment as one of the following:

  • 18- to 20-slide presentation
  • 3- to 4-minute podcast
  • 15- to 20-minute video presentation
  • 875-word paper
  • another format approved by your instructor

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Nursing theory

Search and Seizures" Please respond to the following:

  • Go to the Illinois State Bar Association Website and read the article titled, “U.S. Supreme Court Says ‘No’ to Cell-Phone Searches Incident to Arrest” located at Examine the court’s decision as it relates to cell phone searches incident to arrest. Based on all available information, agree or disagree with the court’s decision. Provide a rationale for your response.
  • Compare and contrast vehicle searches and inventories and indicate the most important differences between the two (2) as they relate to law enforcement officers. In your own opinion, do you feel that law enforcement officers should be allowed to conduct vehicle inventories without warrants issued by judges? Provide a rationale for your response.
Search and Seizures" Please respond to the following:
The Terms
Many terms mean different things in our common language and in scientific language, which leads to misunderstandings about what they mean. This is especially true with terms like theory and law. The table below shows a few terms about scientific knowledge, defined in both our common language and scientific language.
Commonly Misunderstood Terms
 Term Common Definition   Scientific Definition
 hypothesis an educated guess  testable explanation used to guide research 
 theory an idea a set of ideas supported by multiple experiments, done by multiple scientists that describe why something occurs
 law  an absolute truth  a description of what occurs (not why it occurs) supported by multiple experiments
Please read the article HERE to better understand the differences between these terms. 
Example Situation:
I have asked a few friends to help me with a little experiment.  I have asked them to put a white rose in a small vase filled almost to the top with water and add a few drops of blue food coloring. They are to make observations while the flower changes. 

What has occurred?
We have put it in water and left it for a few hours.  
When we came back we all had the same outcome.  The flower had turned blue.

This is what we will call Scientific law.  It is the happenings of a certain experiment. If you put a flower in colored water the flower will take on the color of the water. It simply says WHAT will happen. 

But why did it occur?
My friends and I believe it is because the colored water is drawn up through the flower's stem.

This is what we call a scientific theory. It tries to explain WHY something occurs. 

A scientific theory is not less true than a scientific law. However, a scientific law is a direct result of the results of the experiment. Since in order to become a scientific law it must be proven many times, it is unlikely that somehow new results will occur and a law will be disproved. However, a scientific theory is based on interpretation of experimental results. The results are not usually proven wrong, just the conclusions drawn from the observations. As new and different information becomes available we may realize that we did not draw the correct conclusion and we need to adjust our theory accordingly. 

Just a Theory
When arguing against a scientific theory, like the theory of evolution, people will sometimes say, "but its just a theory." That means that they do not understand that scientific theories are the strongest explanations offered by science. Theories are not scientific laws "in training," like how bills can be ratified into laws. A scientific theory does not ever turn into a scientific law. Instead laws describe what happens, frequently with an equation, while theories explain why it happens. Theories are built on the work on many scientists who conduct many different experiments. Not all of these experiments have the same goal, but through their combined work theories are constantly revised and refined.
One example of this is the heliocentric theory. When Copernicus first wrote this theory it stated that:
  • the Sun is motionless at the center of the universe
  • planets revolve around the Sun
  • the orbits of planets are perfect circles
Further research showed that the Sun was not motionless, instead it revolves on its axis. In addition, Kepler's laws of planetary motion showed that the orbits of the planets are not circles, but ellipses. Instead of this theory being completely discredited as new information has been found it has been adjusted and modified according to these new observations.

Over time the heliocentric theory has changed as new observations and data have been collected from the planets moving in circular orbits (left) to the planets moving in elliptical orbits (right). 

What is Science?
Science is a never ending search for truth. Truth is based on a set of facts and our understanding of those facts. This understanding is based off of observations made by watching the world around us. A good scientist must be ready to accept new facts as they are discovered and modify what is "true" in light of these facts. Even though science in school is usually taught in classes that are limited to a certain area, such as chemistry or physics, science is science, no matter what topic is involved.
What is NOT Science?
Science is not based on faith, like religions, and is not individualistic, like art.  Until the 1600s, science did not exist on a large scale. Instead, people philosophized about why they thought things occurred, instead of making observations and forming conclusions based on those observations about why something occurred. Science is also not a hard truth or a certainty. Scientific knowledge is always evolving and changing as we learn more about the natural world. 
Pure or Applied Science?

Pure science is the gathering of information that adds to the body of human knowledge. Pure science is not directly concerned with the practical use and application of the information. Applied science, also known as technology, is the practical use of scientific information and is not usually considered a “true” science.

Science was responsible for understanding how to make electronic devices smaller and smaller. Technology applied this knowledge to create netbooks and ipads. 
What is Physical Science?

Physical science is the first year science class at this school. Physical science is the study of the physical world around you. Physical science can be broken up into two branches, chemistry and physics. 

  • Chemistry - the study of the structure and properties of matter.
  • Physics - the study of the relationships between matter and energy. 
What can Science Do?
Science can answer questions when there is observable data, like "what causes tides," and "why does sodium ignite in water?" However, science is unable to answer abstract questions such as "is there a God," and subjective questions like "is this painting beautiful?" One question that falls in the middle of these extremes is the string theory. This theory tries to unite all of the theories of the natural world, from Newton's theories of motion for large objects, to Einstein's theory of relativity for very small objects. Unfortunately, this theory relies on the acceptance that all matter is made up of strings. We do not now, nor may we ever, have the ability to look for these tiny objects to prove or disprove this theory. Should it be counted as science, even though we do not have the capability to test it?


Watch the video clip HERE to see more about this debate.

   Pseudosciences are beliefs or theories that act as though they are science in order to sound more convincing. Here are some common qualities of pseudosciences:


  • They are not backed by research and experiments that can be repeated for the same or similar results.
  • They use terms like "biocosmic energy" that have no meaning but sound scientific.
  • They release their results first through the media, instead of through scientific journals.
  • They are elusive about their experimental procedures.
  • They attempt to persuade with misrepresentation, rather than actual facts.
  • Pseudosciences do not progress, or change over time, as more data is uncovered.
Some pseudosciences started out as a part of a true science, but then diverged. Alchemy was original a subset of chemistry, before alchemists started making claims they could not back up with proof. Astronomy and astrology were originally founded on the same ideas, but astrology is now a pseudoscience where astronomy is a true science. 

Write an essay that explains the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law. Give examples of each. Your essay should be at least 2 paragraphs long. Remember to write in complete sentences, using appropriate grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Be sure to cite any sources that you use. 

Laws of science
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